[Index of Königsberg Professors]

Ammon, Christian Friedrich (1696-1742)

1720 (Jun 22): Magister (Jena).

1721 (May 23): AR, Lecturer in Mathematics.

Christian Friedrich Ammon was born (10 Mar 1696) and died (1 Dec 1742) in Königsberg, where he was one of Kant's mathematics professors. Ammon began his own university studies at Königsberg, primarily under the mathematicians Christoph Langhansen [bio] and David Blaesing [bio] — the former a very young Pietist lecturer, the latter an Aristotelian. Ammon received his Magister degree at Jena (22 June 1720), returned to Königsberg the following year (7 June 1721), habilitated at the university on September 24 (with the dissertation De duobus theorematibus philosophicis una cum corollariis) and began lecturing on mathematics and philosophy the following year. He began his teaching career as an Aristotelian, but was using Christian Wolff’s textbooks by the late 1720s when Martin Knutzen [bio] was a student. Pisanski characterizes Ammon’s own textbook (1737) as a mix of Aristotle and Wolff. Ludovici claims that Ammon was widely known as a Pietist, and relates a story of how he anonymously dictated a series of Wolffian additions to a student’s response to a disputation presented by the medical professor M. E. Boretius [bio] on 18 May 1724, which led to the published disputation being banned. Immanuel Kant attended Ammon’s lectures in the early 1740s, and understood them well enough to be able to tutor his friends, as well. Kant’s former student and later colleague, C. J. Kraus, also mentions Ammon as one of Kant’s professors, but notes that he “must have been a real amateur, judging from a mathematical writing of his that I’ve seen” [Reicke 1860, 7]. [Sources: Ludovici 1735-38, i.227, iii.474-76; Arnoldt 1756, 113-14; Buck 1764, 158-60; Pisanski 1886, 529; Wotschke 1928, 77] [8/06]

Select Publications:

Lineae primae matheseos in usum auditorii privati ductae (Königsberg, 1736).

Lineae primae eruditionis humanae in usum auditorii ductae (Königsberg, 1737).

“Wie die Freyheit zu philosophiren Ordnung und Unordnung in den Wissenschafften zuwege bringen könne” in Wöchentliche Königsbergische Frag- und Anzeigungs-Nachrichten (20 August 1740).

Arnd, Johann (1682-1748)

????: Magister (Rostock).

1716: Professor at Gymnasium (Thorn).

1720 (Aug 7): AR.

1721-1728: Assoc. Prof. of Rhetoric and History (Königsberg).*

1728: Rector of a provincial school in Tilsit.

Also: Arndt. Born (Jul 6) in Danzig, died (Oct 26) in Tilsit. Attended the gymnasium in Danzig and received his magister degree at Rostock; taught at his old gymnasium in Danzig, then in Thorn. Problems with Jesuits led him to retreat to Königsberg, where he taught rhetoric and history for seven years. Financial difficulties forced him to leave the university and accept a rectorship at Tilsit. He was best known for his meteorological studies. [Sources: APB; Arnoldt 1746, ii.420-21; Buck 1764, 150-55; Pisanski 1886,480] [last update: 6 Feb 2009]

Arnoldt, Daniel Heinrich (1706-1775)

1721 (Oct 2): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1728 (Oct 25): Magister (Halle).

1729: AR (Jun 11), Assoc. Prof. of Practical Philosophy (until 1735) (Königsberg).*

1732: Consistory advisor.

1733 (Nov 12): Dr. of Theology (Königsberg).

1733: Assoc. Prof. of Theology; adjunct to F. A. Schulz at the Altstadt Church.

1733 (Aug 10): Marries Julianne Rogall (1717-36), the daughter of the Pietist Georg Friedrich Rogall.

1735: 7th Full Prof. of Theology[1]; Adjunct to the 2nd court chaplain at the Castle Church.

1736: 2nd court chaplain at the Castle Church.

1737 (Jul 13): Marries (2nd) Louise Lazarovius (1716-38), daughter of a Kammerverwalter.

1739 (Jan 3): Marries (3rd) Marie Charlotte Vogel, daughter of Prof. of Theology David Vogel.

1745: 6th Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1759: 4th Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1763-75: Director of Collegium Fridericianum (replaced F. A. Schultz).

1765: 2nd Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1770: 2nd court chaplain (under Quandt).

1772: 1st Full Prof. of Theology; 1st court chaplain; president of the Königsberg German Society (until his death).

Also: Arnold. Daniel Heinrich Arnoldt was born (7 Dec 1706) and died (30 Jul 1775) in Königsberg. He was the son of a merchant, and became a Pietist [glossary] theologian in the Wolffian mold of F. A. Schultz and an invaluable local historian. An early interest and ability in poetry led to his first publication (1732), a study on the proper rules for writing poetry, laid out in Wolff's mathematical style. Arnoldt continued this interest throughout his life, and was president of the Royal German Society of Königsberg when he died. He also mentored the future novelist J. T. Hermes during the latter's studies at Königsberg (1758-61). A longer biography of Arnoldt is also available. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746; Arnoldt 1769; Arnoldt 1777, 10, 13, 35; Meusel 1802; Pisanski 1886; APB; ADB; Erler (1911/12); Selle 1956; Zippel 1898; Gause 1996; NDB; DLL] [last update: 21 May 2007]

Select Publications:

De statu hominis naturali, prima humanam dei cognitionem explicans (Königsberg: Reussner, 1729).

Versuch einer systematischen Anleitung zur Poesie überhaupt (Königsberg, 1732). 2nd ed, with changed title, is below at 1741.

Ausführliche und mit Urkunden versehene Historie der königsbergischen Universität, 2 vols. (Königsberg: J. H. Hartung, 1746), vol. 1: 366 pp., 504 pp.; vol. 2: 592 pp, 104 pp. [with two volumes of additions: 1756, 1769]

Zusätze zu seiner Historie der königsbergischen Universität (Königsberg: Hartung, 1756), 240 pp.

Fortgesetzte Zusätze zu seiner Historie der königsbergischen Universität (Königsberg: Zeise and Hartung, 1769), 202 pp.

Kirchengeschichte des Königsreich Preußen (Königsberg, 1769).

Kurzgefaßte Nachrichten von allen seit der Reformation an den lutherischen Kirchen in Ostpreußen gestandenen Predigern, edited by Friedrich Wilhelm Benefeldt (Königsberg: Hartung, 1777).


[1] Arnoldt [1777, 35] claims he became a full professor of theology in the same year he was awarded the doctorate, i.e., 1733; also that he became an assoc. professor of practical philosophy in 1730.

Babatius, Johann Sigismund (16??-17??)

1692 (Mar 16): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1703: PR, Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).

1710-13: Pastor (Cauen).

Pastor in Cauen. Goldbeck [1782, 176] mentions a Magister Joh. Babatius as teaching at the Kneiphof school. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 73]

Backhaus, Johann Martin (1694-1756)

1713 (Apr 8): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1714 or 1719: Magister (Jena).

1726 (May 21): AR.

1727: Lecturer in Philosophy.

1729: Pastor in Thierenberg (Prussia).

Also: Backhusius. Born in Preuschemler; died (Jan 1) in Thierenberg. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 73; Arnoldt 1777, 18]

Baumgarten, Christoph Friedrich (16??-1746)

1712 (Mar 17): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1720 (Feb 10): Magister (Leipzig).

1721 (Sep 4): AR, Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1731: Field chaplain near Tilsit.

1737: Inspector (Wesserlingen).

Christoph Friedrich Baumgarten (also: Baumgart, Baumgarth) was born in Königsberg in the early 1690s and died on 28 August 1746 in Wesserlingen. He was a minor Wolffian philosopher and older cousin to the Königsberg theologian D. H. Arnoldt [bio]. Baumgarten matriculated at the university in Königsberg (1712), received his Magister from Leipzig (1720), then returned to Königsberg in 1721 and habilitated with an address on miracles, and began lecturing that winter semester. Pisanski claims he was one of the first to study and lecture on Christian Wolff’s philosophy, which he did for the next ten years. He left Königsberg in 1731 to work as a field chaplain near Tilsit, and in 1737 became a church inspector at Wesselringen (in Halberstadt). [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 115-16; Ludovici 1735-38, i.342, 361; Pisanksi 1886, 525, 536, 564, 705; Wotschke 1928, 20, 170]

Select Publications:

De miraculis (Königsberg: Reussner, 1721).

De cura principis circa vestes (date?).

Baumgarten, Johann Adolf (1696-1748)

1719: Prof. of Mathematics. [??]

1721: Court chaplain.

1722: Chaplain (Berlin).

1725: Erzpriester (Fischhausen).

1733-48: Deacon at the Altstadt Church.

Born (Mar 15) in Berlin; died (Dec 19) in Königsberg. He left behind a great number of books. [Sources: Arnoldt 1777, 41; Pisanski 1886, 505; Wotschke 1928, 30] [last update: 21 May 2007]

Bayer, Gottlieb Siegfried (1694-1738)

1717 (Feb 11): Magister (Leipzig).

1717 (Oct 25): AR (Königsberg).

1718-26: 1st Librarian, City Library (replaced Quandt).

1720: Conrector, then prorector (1721-26), of the Cathedral School (Königsberg).

1726: Prof. of Classical Antiquity (Univ. at St. Petersburg) and member of the new Russian Academy of Sciences.

1730 (Feb 1): Member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences.

Born (Jan 6) in Königsberg, died (Feb 10; 2/21 on the Gregorian calendar) in St. Petersburg; the son of a painter. Attended the Collegium Fridericianum, then the Albertina, studying also in Berlin, Frankfurt/Oder, and finally Leipzig. While in Königsberg, he also worked as a private tutor. Bayer was one of the most important orientalists of the 18th century, although he does not appear to have taught at the Albertina. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, i.443-4; Goldbeck 1782, 176; Pisanski 1886, 475-6; APB; ADB]

Becker, Wilhelm Heinrich (1694-1768)

1710 (Mar 27): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1717: Magister (Königsberg).

1718: Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1723, 1731: Deacon, then pastor in Labiau.

Also: Beckher. Born (Jun 2) in Königsberg, died (Oct 2) in Labiau; the son of a government official. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 75; Pisanski 1886, 524, 588, 683; APB]

Behm, Johann (1686-1753)

1702 (Nov 1): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1710 (Aug 12): Magister (Jena).

1712 (Jan 7): AR, Lecturer in Philosophy.

1717: Assoc. Prof. of Greek (Königsberg).

1717 (Nov 2): Dr. of Theology (Königsberg), Assoc. Prof. of Theology.

1721: Full Prof. of Greek (Königsberg).

1728-51: 1st Librarian, University Library (replaced M. S. Grabe).

1733: Consistory Advisor (Samland).

1745: 7th Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1750: 6th Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

Born (Apr 7) in Holland (Prussia), the grandson of Michael Behm (1612-1650, theology professor from 1639-50), who was in turn the son of his more famous father, Johann Behm (1578-1648), who taught in the theology faculty from 1609-48. After graduating from Jena, Behm toured through Holland and England. He maintained his full professorship in Greek alongside his professorship in theology. [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746, ii. 194, 217, 372, 468; Pisanski 1886, 319, 244-5; Gause 1996, ii.242; ADB; Wotschke 1928, 36-7]

Blaesing, David (1660-1719)

1678 (Oct 11): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1681: Moves to Leipzig.

1683 (Jan 25): Magister (Leipzig).

1684 (Sep 8): AR, Lecturer in Philosophy (mathematics, at Königsberg).

1690: Full Prof. of Mathematics (Königsberg).

1697-99: Trip to Holland, England, and France.

1701 (Mar 11): Member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences.

1703: 1st inspector of the Alumnat [glossary] (replacing Hedio).

Born (29 Dec 1660) and died (7 Oct 1719) in Königsberg; the son of a tinsmith. Attended the Altstadt school, then the Albertina. He began his studies in medicine, then moved to theology, and finally mathematics. His pro loco dissertation upon his assuming the mathematics chair concerned the 1690 transit of Mercury. He was an Aristotelian, and wrote against the Cartesians (De extensione mundi adversus Cartesium). He died childless and a widower, leaving his house and garden, including a library of over 3000 volumes and a valuable coin collection, to the university, significantly increasing its library holdings. The Blaesing endowment of 1000 rthl. provided, among other things, a four-year stipend of 30 rthl. per year to a mathematics student. An image of Blaesing appears as a frontispiece to vol. 4 of the Beiträge zur Kunde Preußens (1824). [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, i.337, ii.15, 348, 378-9; Bernoulli 1779, iii.39-40; Pisanski 1886, 493; Voigt 1824; APB; Selle 1956, 127] [last update: 6 Aug 2013]

Bock, Friedrich Samuel (1716-1785)

1732 (Sep 27): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1743: Magister (Halle).

1743: Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*(PR: Nov. 20)

1751-78: 1st librarian, University Library (replaced Behm).

1753-85: Full Prof. of Greek (Königsberg).*

1753 (SS): 7th Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).*

1759: 6th Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1766-70: 4th Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

Friedrich Samuel Bock was born (20 May 1716) and died (30 September 1785) in Königsberg; he was the son of the city surgeon, and younger brother to Johann Georg Bock [bio]. Bock was a prolific and many-sided scholar, with primary interests in theology, the natural sciences, and history, and was a colleague of Immanuel Kant’s. A longer biography of Bock is also available. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756; Arnoldt 1769; Goldbeck 1781-83; Goldbeck 1782; Pisanski 1886; Metzger 1804; APB; ADB; Gause 1996; DLL; Kohnen 2000, 55]

Select Publications:

Specimen theologiae naturalis primum Deum gratiosissimum evincens... (Königsberg: Reusner, 1743). [pro receptione disputation]

Grundriss von dem merkwuerdigen Leben des durchlauchtigen Fuersten und Herrn, Herrn Albrecht des Aeltern, Marggrafen zu Brandenburg, in Preussen, zu Stettin ... (Königsberg: J. H. Hartung, 1745). 2nd ed: 1750.

Historia Socinianismi prussici, maximam partem ex documentis MSStis. (Königsberg: Hartung, 1754).

Historia antitrinitariorum, 2 vol. (Königsberg/Leipzig: Hartung, 1774-76).

Lehrbuch der Erziehungskunst zum Gebrauch für christliche Eltern und künftige Jugendlehrer (Königsberg and Leipzig: J. H. Hartung, 1780).

Versuch einer wirthschaftlichen Naturgeschichte von dem Königreich Ost- und Westpreussen, 5 vol. (Dessau/Halle, 1782-1785).

Bock, Johann Georg (1698-1762)

1714 (Sep 1): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1727: Magister (Halle).

1728 (Oct 14): AR.

1732: Member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences. (APB: 1752.)

1732/33 (WS): Assoc. Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics (succeeded Salthenius)(Königsberg).

1733: Full Prof. of Poetry (Königsberg).*

Johann Georg Bock was born on 12 May 1698 and died 7 July 1762 in Königsberg. He was the oldest son of the city surgeon and brother to Friederich Samuel Bock [bio]; both brothers taught at the university at Königsberg alongside Kant, the older brother while Kant was still a student. 

Bock matriculated at the university on 1 September 1714, worked for several years as a private tutor, and then finished his studies in 1727 at Halle where he received the magister degree. He returned to Königsberg the following year (re-matriculating on 14 October 1728), although it appears he was not holding lectures, and was perhaps instead working as a private tutor. He was appointed associate professor of logic and metaphysics (to replace Salthenius) beginning in the fall of 1732, but was then made full professor of poetry the following year, succeeding Johann Valentin Pietsch [bio], whose poems he later edited. Bock’s habilitation (pro receptione) and inaugural (pro loco) disputations both occured in November 1733 and were published together; these concern poetic theory and develop a concept of a poem’s beauty based not on mere imitation, but rather on how lively it represents its object. Bock’s friend and correspondent in Leipzig, the Wolffian literary critic J. C. Gottsched [bio] — they had likely attended Pietsch’s poetry lectures together — was provoked by this into publishing a critical response.

Bock was a respected and successful poet of occasional and religious verse, a small selection of which was published in 1756, and he opposed the Pietism [glossary] sweeping through the university, complaining how it suppressed the arts; but he is best remembered for his dictionary of Prussian idioms and colloquialisms. Bock was inducted into the Berlin Academy of Sciences in 1732 and made an honorary professor of the St. Petersburg Academy in 1758. He features heavily in an historical novel by Olfers-Batocki [1986]. A biography of Bock by his colleague J. G. Pisanski (Königsberg, 1762) appears to be no longer extant. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.404-5, 424; Arnoldt 1769, 18; Pisanski 1886, 468, 470, 645, 651, 658, 660-61, 664, 680; APB; Gause 1996, ii.138, 141, 149, 156; DLL, i.628; Kohnen 2000, 55-72]

Select Publications:

Dissertatio academica prior de pulchritudine carminum (Königsberg: Reussner, 1733).

(editor), Des Herrn Johann Valentin Pietschen ... Gebundne Schriften in einer vermehrtern Sammlung ans Licht gestellet von Johann George Bock (Königsberg: Christoph Gottfried Eckart, 1740).

Gedichte (Königsberg: Johann Heinrich Hartung, 1756).

Idioticon prussicum; oder, Entwurf eines preußischen Wörterbuches (Königsberg: Woltersdorf, 1759).

Boese, Johann (1683-1719)

1699 (Oct 1): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1702: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1704 (Sep 18): Magister (Königsberg).

1711-13: 2nd inspector of the alumnat (replacing Stadtlender).

1713: Full Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics (replaced Rabe)(Königsberg).

1715-19: Traveling abroad (Denmark, Germany, Holland,England, France).

Also: Böse. Born (Aug 1) in Königsberg, died in Tours, France (August). His listing as a lecturer in 1702 is likely a mistake, since he received his magister only in 1704. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, i.347, ii.385-6, 433]

Bohl, Johann Christoph (1703-1785)

1719 (Sep 25): Matriculation (Königsberg). [Aug 25: Waschkies 1987, 26]

1726 (Jul 26): Dr. of Med. (Leyden).

1730 (Aug 15): AR (Königsberg).

1741: 2nd Full Prof. of Medicine (Königsberg).

1766: 1st Full Prof. of Medicine (Königsberg).

Johann Christoph Bohl (also: Bohlius, Bohle) was born (16 November 1703) and died (29 December 1785) in Königsberg. He was a professor of medicine at Königsberg for 44 years, having studied under Boerhaave and Ruysch at Leyden, and was a skilled anatomist. Kant dedicated his first publication, Living Forces (1747) to Bohl. A longer biography of Bohl is also available. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746; Arnoldt 1756; Arnoldt 1769; Börner 1749-53; Goldbeck 1781-83; Pisanski 1886; Meusel 1802; Metzger 1804; Reicke 1860; Kuhrke 1924]

Select Publications:

Dem Hoch-Ehrwürdigen Hoch-Achtbaren und Hoch-Gelehrten Herrn Johann Jacob Quandten (Königsberg, 1721).

Lemma anatomico-physiologicum inaugurale. De morsu ... (Lugduni Batavorum: Apud Conradum Wishoff, 1726).

Medicamentis Lithontripticis anglicanis (Königsberg, 1741).

Historia naturalis viae lactere corporis humani (Königsberg, 1741).

Responsio, ad Dissertationem epistolicam (Amsterdam: Jansson-Waesberge, 1744).

De insensibilitate tendinum (Königsberg, 1764).

Von der nöthigen Vorsichtigkeit bey denen in lebendigen Geschöpfen anzustellenden Erfahrungen von der Unempfindlichkeit der Sehnen (Königsberg, 1767).

Boltz, Friedrich (16??-1754)

1713 (Apr 30): Magister (Königsberg).

1717 (Aug 18): AR (Königsberg).

1719: Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).

1719: 2nd inspector of the alumnat (replacing Rohde).

1721: Superintendant (Fischhausen).

1750: Pastor (Georgenau in Pr.).

Also: Bolz. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, i.348; 1756, 12; Arnoldt 1777, 4-5]

Boltz, Theodor (1680-1764)

1693 (Sep 28): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1701: Hofgerichtsadvokat.

1706: Dr. of Law (Königsberg).

1707: Assoc. Prof. of Law (Königsberg).

1710: Hofhalsgerichtsassessor.

1724: Assistant City Advisor; Bourough Judge.

1730: City Advisor; inspector of the police.

1732: Full Prof. of Law (Königsberg).

1746: Superior Judge.

1750, 1753: 3rd , then 2nd Mayor of Königsberg.

Born and died in Königsberg; his father (Joh. Christoph) had been a lawyer, high government official, and professor of law, serving as rector the semester his son matriculated. The son’s career followed his father’s. [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; APB]

Boretius, Matthias Ernst (1694-1738)

1708 (Sep 17): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1720: Promoted in Leyden.

1722 (Dec 7): AR (Königsberg).

1723 (Jun 9): Member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences.

1724 (SS): Assoc. Prof. of Medicine (Königsberg).

1727: 3rd Full Prof. of Medicine [Arnoldt 1746, ii.317: 1728].

1728: City physician.

1738: Hofrat & Leibarzt.

Matthias Ernst Boretius was born (18 May 1694) in Lötzen and died (4 Oct 1738)[1] in Königsberg. He was the son of a pastor. He began his studies at the university in theology, then switched to medicine. After transferring to Leyden and studying under Boerhaave, he receiving his medical degree and traveled to England, where he witnessed the first experiments (on six condemned prisoners) of the new smallpox vaccine (20 Aug. 1721). Boretius brought the vaccine back to Prussia and published an account of this (1722). Pisanski [1886, 619] quotes a comment in a Hamburg paper of 1738 (likely an obituary): “With his frequent trips to Amsterdam, he became acquainted with the world famous anatomist Ruysschio [Frederik Ruysch], who loved him like a son, and entrusted him with many arcana anatomica.” Boretius had also prepared many anatomical specimens. [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746, ii.317, 334-35; Pisanski 1886, 619, 625; APB; Selle 1956, 128]

Select Publications:

Observationum exoticarum specimen primum, sistens famosam Anglorum variolas per inoculationem excitandi methodum, cum eiusdem phaenomenis et successibus (Königsberg, 1722).


[1] Gause [1996, ii.115] mistakenly gives his birthyear as 1649.

Boye, Johann Ludwig (1685-1724)

1701 (Mar 19): Matriculation? (Königsberg).

1709-13: Präses (Jena).

1714: Rector of the Gymnasium (Durlach).

Also: Boy. Born (Dec 24) in Königsberg, died (Sep 16) in Durlach. Magister degree (from Königsberg?), professor of theology and philosophy, as well as rector at the gymnasium at Durlach. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 121-2; 1769, 59; Pisanski 705]

Braun, Christian Renatus (1714-1782)

1730 (Oct 5): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1764: Prof. of Law (Königsberg).

Lecturer in Philosophy. Kant wrote a memorial verse for him (in a pamphlet of such verses written by most of the professors of the faculty). [Sources: Metzger 1804, 37-8]

Buck, Friedrich Johann (1722-1786)

1737 (Jun 4): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1743 (Jul 18): PR, Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1747-82: 2nd Librarian, City Library (replacing J. B. Casseburg).

1748: Dr. of Law in absentia (Frankfurt/Oder).

1753-59: Assoc. Prof. of Mathematics (Königsberg).*

1759-69: Full Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics (replacing J. D. Kypke; Königsberg.*(PL: 4/5/1759)

1770: Full Prof. of Mathematics (Königsberg).*

1782-86: 1st Librarian, City Library (replaced T. C. Lilienthal).

Born (Nov 12) and died (Aug 14) in Königsberg. He was the son of a Prussian bureaucrat, and taught mathematics and philosophy at the university in Königsberg as a colleague and rival of his more famous townsman Immanuel Kant. Both were talented lecturers, and lecturing over the same subjects, and therefore competing for the same students. Buck appears to have been a favorite of Knutzen over Kant. At least from Kant’s side, the hostility is palpable: in 1770, Kant maneuvered Buck out of his chair of logic and metaphysics and into an open chair of mathematics, so that Kant could take the logic/metaphysics chair,[1] and then in 1786, three days before Buck has even died, we find Kant promoting his colleague Johann Schultz for the position. A longer biography of Buck is also available. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756; Arnoldt 1769; Goldbeck 1782; Goldbeck 1781-83; Pisanski 1886; Metzger 1804; APB; ADB; Vorländer 1924; Gause 1996; Oberhausen/Pozzo 1999; Stark 1999b; Kuehn 2001]

Select Publications:

Philosophische Gedanken von der Schreibart der heiligen Schrift, und ins besondere von der Mosaischen Beschreibung der Erschaffung des ersten Menschen, nebst einigen Anmerckungen (Danzig: Knoch, 1745).

Lebens-Beschreibungen derer verstorbenen Preußischen Mathematiker überhaupt und des vor mehr denn hundert Jahren verstorbenen großen Preußischen Mathematikers P.Christian Otters insbesondere (Königsberg and Leipzig: Hartung, 1764).

(published anon.) "Geschichte des Herrn Friedrich Johann Buck ordentlichen Professors der Logik und Metaphysik auf der königl. Universität zu Königsberg" in Neues gelehrtes Europa (Wolfenbüttel, 1775), vol. 20, pp. 989-1059.


[1] See Kant’s letter of 16 March 1770 to Minister von Fürst, written the day after Langhansen’s death [Ak. 10:90-2]: “Doctor Buck, who is currently occupying the professorship of logic and metaphysics ... was also for several years the associate professor of mathematics, and received the vacated logic and metaphysics professorship only because of the Russian government; otherwise I would have received it, given the recommendation of the university.”

Burckhard, Christian Friedrich (16??-1749)

1702 (Feb 6): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1708 (Mar 31): Magister (Wittenberg).

1712 (Apr 14): AR (Königsberg).

1715: Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1718: Pastor (Guttenfeld in Pr.)

1726: Pastor (Deren).

Born in Danzig, died in Deren. Brother to Thomas (see below). [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 80]

Burckhard, Thomas (1686-1744)

1702 (Feb 6): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1708 (Mar 31): Magister (Wittenberg).

1712 (Apr 14): AR?

1714: Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1715: Assoc. Prof. of Poetry (Königsberg).*

Also: Burchard, Burchardt. Thomas Burckhard was born (1686) in Danzig and died (24 Jan 1744) in Königsberg, where he taught for about thirty years as an Aristotelian professor of poetry. His brother Christian Friedrich also taught at Könïgsberg (see above). A longer biography of Burckhard is also available. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746; Jöcher 1750-51; Pisanski 1886; Wotschke 1928]

Select Publications:

De imperatoribus occidentalibus qui imperio se abdicarunt (Königsberg, 1714).

De nobilibus Germaniae poetis (Königsberg, 1715).

Busolt, Gotthilf Christoph Wilhelm (1771-1831)

1788 (Sep 23): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1792: Receives the licentia concionandi. [??]

1795: Teacher at the Altstadt School (Königsberg).

1798: Magister (Königsberg). [Not clear that he ever lectured at the university]

Gotthilf Christoph Wilhelm Busolt was born (6 Feb 1771) in Buchholz (near Landsberg, in East Prussia) and died (3 May 1831) in Königsberg. His father was the local pastor in Buchholz, and Busolt entered the clergy as well, although he is best remembered for his work on Prussian school reform.

Busolt was educated at home, but at the age of eight he moved to Königsberg to live with relatives following his father’s death. He began university studies in Königsberg in the fall of 1788, where he attended lectures by C. J. Kraus and Immanuel Kant (there are three sets of notes associated with Busolt's name — on anthropology, on physical geography, and on logic — although it is likely that he only purchased and did not himself write them). He also began teaching at a local Gymnasium, the Altstadt School, where Daniel Weymann (a Pietist opponent of Kant’s) was the rector, and tutored in various homes. An early exposure to the writings of Pestalozzi (as well as those of Rousseau, Basedow, and Campe) shaped his interest in public educational reform and, after receiving his magister in 1798, he toured Germany to study different public schools. He returned to Königsberg in 1800 with a government appointment as church advisor, then later as school advisor, and in this capacity he attempted to introduce Pestalozzi’s teaching methods. Because of the Napoleonic wars, the royal family and various other Berlin luminaries, such as Wilhelm von Humboldt, resided in Königsberg in 1808-09, and the royal family (Friedrich Wilhelm II, Luise, and their children) spent the summers at Busolt’s estate just outside of town (the estate formerly owned by T. G. Hippel). Busolt gave public lectures on pedagogy at this time, which the royal couple, as well as Humboldt, attended. [Sources: Neuer Nekrolog 1831, 9:383-85; Reusch 1848, 18; APB; Gause 1996, ii.225, 320, 323, 353, 357-9]

Select Publications:

Dreißig-jährige Erfahrungen aus Beobachtungen über Erziehung, Unterricht und Selbstentwicklung (Königsberg, 1829).

Büttner, Christoph Gottlieb (1708-1776)

1732: Dr. of Medicine (Halle).

1734: Assoc. Prof. of Medicine (Königsberg).

1738: 5th Full Prof. of Medicine (Königsberg).

1741: 4th Full Prof. of Medicine (Königsberg).

1748: 3rd Full Prof. of Medicine (Königsberg).

1766: 2nd Full Prof. of Medicine (Königsberg).

Christoph Gottlieb Büttner was born (10 Jul 1708) in Brandenburg (now Ushakovo), about twenty kilometers south-west of Königsberg, and died (1 Apr 1776) in Konigsberg. He is best known as a skilled anatomist with a famous collection of prepared specimens, as well as for his work in forensic medicine and abnormal anatomy. (He should not be confused with either Christian Wilhelm Büttner (1716-1801), a professor of natural history at Göttingen, or Christoph Andreas Büttner (1706-74), a professor of philosophy at Halle.)

One minor biographical connection to his famous fellow townsman Immanuel Kant: Büttner married a daughter of Christoph Daniel Meltzer [bio], one of his old medical professors, and Büttner’s own daughter, Johanna Eleonora (1751-95), married the mathematician Johann Schultz [bio], a colleague and occasional collaborator of Kant’s. A letter from Johanna to Kant (22 December 1793) suggests a daughterly affection for the elderly philosopher. A longer biography of Büttner is also available. [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746; Arnoldt 1756; Arnoldt 1769; Börner 1749-53; Goldbeck 1782; Pisanski 1886; Meusel; APB; ADB] [last update: 2 Aug 2010]

Select Publications:

In vielen Jahren gesammlete anatomische Wahrnehmungen (Königsberg, 1768).

Aufrichtiger Unterricht vor neu angehende Aerzte und Wundärzte, wie sie sich vor, in, und nach der legalen Besichtigungen todter Körper zu verhalten und die Besichtigungsscheine von der Tödtlichkeit der Wunden einzurichten haben (Königsberg and Leipzig, 1769).

Gesammelte anatomischen Abhandlungen (Königsberg, 1769).

Anatomische Wahrnehmungen, mit Kupfern (Königsberg, 1769).

Vollständige Anweisung wie durch anzustellende Besichtigungen ein verübter Kindermord auszumitteln sey, nebst acht und achtzig beygefügten eigenen Obductions-Zeugnissen (Königsberg, 1771).

Sechs seltene Anatomisch-Chirurgische Wahrnehmungen (Königsberg, 1774).

Casseburg, Gottfried Bernhard (1708-1750)

1723 (Apr 30): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1730: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1740: Assoc. Prof. of Antiquity (a special chair of philosophy).*

Also: Georg. Born and died (Jan 28) in Königsberg. Oberhausen/Pozzo [1999] indicate that he offered courses from WS 1739/40 to WS 1749/50. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.426; 1756, 76; Goldbeck 1782, 29]

Charisius, Christian Ludwig (1692-1741)

1701: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1715 (Dec 3): Dr. of Medicine.

1717: Assoc. Prof. of Medicine.

1720: 4th Full Prof. of Medicine.

1728 (Mar 10): Member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences; 2nd Full Prof. of Medicine.

1738: Royal Hofrat & Leibarzt.

Born (Feb 21) and died (Jan 24) in Königsberg; the son of the law professor Karl Heinrich Charisus (1650-1709). He studied law as well as medicine. He developed an extensive cabinet of natural specimens, which later entered the collection of F.F. Saturgus. [Adolf Saturgus (1685-1739)? See entry under “Sanden”] Member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences. [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746, ii.313, 334; APB; ADB]

Chmelnicki, Johann (1742-1794)

1760 (Aug 2): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1767 (Apr 10): Magister and Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).

Also: Ivan Parfenovich Chmelnitski. A Russian and a direct descendent of Hetman Bogdan Chmelnitski. He was born in January 1742, studied a year at Kiev Theological Academy, and then matriculated at the university at Königsberg in 1760, where Immanuel Kant had been lecturing since 1755. Only a few traces of his activity here remain. He received his magister from Königsberg in 1767 with a dissertation on de servitute minus toleranda, ob rationes, but he could not have lectured there long, if at all, and certainly not after 1769. He returned to Russia as First Secretary of the Senate, and was appointed by Catherine II to the commission on legal reform. He translated various scholarly works from the German into Russian, including a 'Refutatation of Slavery according to Natural Law' and the writings of the Czech educational reformer Jan Amos Comenius (1592-1670). He died on 2 January 1794.

In his remarks on the 1762 disputation on the 'elucidation of the principles of ontology' held by the Crusian Pietist Daniel Weymann (1732-95), Chmelnicki attempted to refute the basic metaphysical principles found in Baumeister's Institutiones metaphysica (1739) along the same lines as taken in Kant's Nova dilucidatio (1755). Baumeister's popular Wolffian metaphysics textbook had once been used by Kant in his lectures, and was still used routinely by the full professor of logic and metaphysics, Georg David Kypke (1724-79). At the beginning of the winter semester 1763-4, the newly habilitated Gottlieb Schlegel (1739-1810) published a disputation (De gravibus quibusdam psychologiae dogmatibus, 1763) which Chmelnicki criticized in a pamphlet later that year, arguing that Schlegel's topic hardly counted as gravia dogmata, that any claims proceeding from the simplicity of the soul are empty, and that his proofs for the soul's immortality all failed. Three years later (September 1765) the theology faculty prevented the publication of a further pamphlet of Chmelnicki's on the question of whether God must possess more than infinite power; the work appeared the following year. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 157-8; Pisanski 1886, 535-6, 538; HM, 1:581; Stark 1999b]

Select Publications:

Gravia quaedam psychologiae dogmatae sub incudem revocata (Königsberg, 1763).

Gedanken über die Frage: ob Gott mehr als eine undendliche Grundkraft besitze (1766).

De servitute minus toleranda, ob rationes ex jure naturae et gentium allatas (Königsberg, 1767).

Christiani, Karl Andreas (1707-1780)

1723 (Sep 30): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1735 (Jun 15): Magister (Halle).

1735 (Aug 27): AR, Assoc. Prof. of Practical Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1736: Inspector of the Gröben Scholarship House.

1749: Full Prof. of Practical Philosophy (replaced Gregorovius)(Königsberg).*

1763-80: Librarian, Wallenrodt Library (replaced J. H. D. Moldenhawer).

Born (Nov 29) and died (Jun 21) in Königsberg, where he taught moral philosophy for many years at the university. He studied at the Cathedral School before attending the Albertina and finishing at Halle, where he also taught at the grammar school (beginnin in 1731) He became a Pietist Wolffian and protégé of F. A. Schultz and returned to Königsberg as an associate, then full professor of practical philosophy, lecturing primarily on natural law, using a text by L. P. Thümmig, Institutiones philosophiae Wolfianae (Frankfurt/Leipzig 1725-26), but also texts by Wolff and, later, Achenwall. Kant’s career was somewhat intertwined with Christiani’s. While jockeying for a full professorship, Kant once suggested to Berlin that Christiani assume the Mathematics position recently vacated by the death of his father-in-law (Langhansen).[1] Later, Kant entered the faculty senate upon Christiani’s death, and dedicated a poem to him.[2] Kant’s former student, Christian Jacob Kraus, replaced Christiani as full professor of practical philosophy. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.425; Arnoldt 1756, 68-69, 76; Arnoldt 1769, 47; Goldbeck 1781-83, i.208-9; Pisanski 1886, 496, 505, 562-63; Meusel 1803, 2:103; Jöcher/Adelung 1787, vol. 2, col. 319; APB; Gause 1996, ii.36, 242, 247; Ziesemer/Henkel 1955-79, 4:193, 199]

Select Publications:

De regulis, quas homo stando, ac eundo observat (Königsberg, 1735).

De pugna appetitus et aversationis naturalis cum aversatione et appetitu sensitivo (Königsberg, 1735).

De vera religione seu firmissimo civitatis conservandae vinculo (Königsberg, 1744).

De paroemia iuris: Kauf geht vor Miethe, sit iuris naturalis? (Königsberg, 1749).


[1] Kant had suggested in a letter to Carl Joseph Maximilian Freyherrn v. Fürst u. Kupferberg (March 16, 1770; Ak. 2: 90-91) that Christiani assume his father-in-law’s chair of mathematics, so that Kant could have the chair of practical philosophy. Kant noted that Christiani had as good an understanding of mathematics as anyone at the university, and that he was also the best candidate as inspector of the Alumnat [glossary], a position normally held by the mathematics chair because the astronomical observatory and related instruments were found there. This inspectorate also included the benefit of free lodging at the college.

[2] According to Hamann, Christiani died rather suddenly, working in his garden in the evening, found dead in his bed the next morning (from a letter to Kraus, Christiani’s eventual successor, in Hamann, Briefwechsel, v.199-200; repr. in Malter 1990, 160-1).

Colberg, Christian (1685-1744)

1713-17: Conrector (Marienburg).

1717-26: Pastor (Danzig).

1720?: Lecturer in Philosophy.

1726: Ministerial Candidate (Danzig). [?]

1726: Conrector, Cathedral School (Königsberg).

1728, 1735, 1743: Conrector, prorector, then rector of the Altstadt School.

1742 (Mar 12): Matriculation (Königsberg).

Born in Storcow (in the Mark), died (May 4) in Königsberg. His matriculation in 1742 is on the occasion of his rectorship. He shows no previous matriculation; it’s unclear if he ever lectured at the university. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 127-8; Pisanski 1886, 474]

Columbus, Albert [Albrecht] (1692-1731)

1707 (Oct 10): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1712: Magister (Jena).

1713 (Dec 11): AR (Königsberg).

1714: Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1716, 1719: Conrector, then rector, of the Cathedral School (replacing J. J. Oswald).

Born (Mar 1) in Liebstadt (Prussia), died (Mar 13) in Königsberg. Traveled in Holland and Germany after receiving his magister degree. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 128; Pisanski 1886, 475]

Corsch, Martin (1680-1737)

1698 (Oct 1): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1705 (Oct 8): Magister (Jena).

1706: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1711: Pastor at the Friedrichsberg fortress (Königsberg).

1717: Deacon at the Sackheim Church.

Born and died (Mar 25) in Königsberg. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 129]

Danovius, Johann Friedrich (1710-1748)

1726 (Feb 28): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1735 (Oct 10): Magister (Königsberg).

1736: Lecturer in Philosophy (rhetoric and history).*

1736: Assoc. Prof. of Rhetoric & History (began WS 1736/37).

1737: 2nd inspector of the alumnat (replacing Schaewen).

1744: Rector of the Löbenicht School.

Born (1710) in Gerdauen, died (12 Nov 1748) in Königsberg. His father was rector in Gerdauen, and later a pastor in Assaunen. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.425, 433; APB] [last update: 5 Jun 2007]

Deutsch, Christian (16??-17??)

1703 (Aug 13): Matriculation (Königsberg).[1]

1710 (Aug 12): Magister (Jena).

 [1710: Assoc. Prof. of Church History and Oriental Languages (Königsberg).] — this can’t be right.

1713: Präses (Leipzig).

1726: Assoc. Prof. of Theology; and deacon at the Oberkirche, later pastor and inspector (Frankfurt).

Born in Königsberg, the son of Friedrich Deutsch, Full Prof. of Theology. Not in Pisanski. Not in Oberhausen/Pozzo [1999], so had left before SS 1720. Bornhak [1900, 113] claims his appointment to assoc. prof. occurred on Dec. 18, 1713. Hagelgans [1737] lists someone with the same name on the theology faculty at Frankfurt/Oder. Arnoldt does not include him in his list of Assoc. Prof. for Philosophy, although he does give a brief biography [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 143]


[1] Or else: 1701 (Apr 1), where the Matrikel reads: “Deutsch, Christ. Regio-Pr, Rectoris Academiae filus, ritu depositionis iam anno 1698, die 25. Febr. iniatutus.” The Frankfurt Matrikel for March 22, 1718, reads “ — m. Christianus Deutsch Regiomontanus Borussus”, with a payment of 6 gr.

Deutsch, Friedrich (1657-1709)

1688: 2nd Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1703: Higher court-chaplain and 1st Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

Died (21 April 1709) from the plague, in Königsberg, as the First Professor of Theology. He was the father of Christian Deutsch (see above). [Sources: Arnoldt 1777, 10; Rogge 1878, 523] [last update: 20 Jul 2010]

Diederichs, Johann Christian Wilhelm (1750-1781)

1775: Lecturer in Philosophy (Göttingen).

1780 (Jul 20): Full Prof. of Oriental Languages.

Born (Aug 29) and died (Mar 28) in Königsberg. Received his magister degree at Göttingen, where he studied under J. D. Michaelis (bio), and then taught as a lecturer. He was called to Königsberg in 1780 to assume the post Oriental Language. He was already quite ill when he arrived in Königsberg, and it is not clear that he actually gave any lectures. His only teaching entry was for WS 1780/81. See Kant’s official writing concerning Diederich’s assumption of the professorship (Ak. 12:421-22). [Sources: Pisanski 1886, 637; Metzger 1804, 52-3; ADB]

Elsner, Christoph Friedrich (1749-1820)

1766: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1774: Dr. of Medicine.

1785: Full Prof. of Medicine; government advisor.

1806: 1st Prof. of Medicine.

Born and died (Apr 19) in Königsberg, his father a master baker. Attended the Collegium Fridericianum, then the university (first mathematics, then medicine). A former student of Kant’s, a clinician at the university, and also Kant’s physician and frequent dinner guest during the last years of his life. First entry in the Lecture Catalog was for WS 1785/86. His son, Christoph Johann Heinrich Elsner (1777-1834),[1] studied under Kant (matriculating March 27, 1792) and left us the Elsner anthropology notes. [Sources: Metzger 1804, 62; Hartung 1825, 263; Reusch 1848, 9; APB; ADB]


[1] Kant wrote a testimonial for the younger Elsner: “Dass Herr Christoph Johann Heinr. Elsner, aus Bartenstein in Preussen gebürtig; Sohn des Herrn Dr. Elsner, practischen Medicus in Königsberg: der von Berlin, über Hamburg nach Bordeaux zu Schiffe abgegangen, bey mir alle seine philosophische Collegia frequentiert und von seinem Fleiss zu Erwerbung gründlicher Kenntnisse die besten Proben gegeben, bezeuge hiemit. / Koenigsberg, d. 10. Juny 1800./ Immanuel Kant Der Logik und Metaph./ Professor ordin., der Philos. Facult u. der ganzen Universität Senior, der Königl. Preuss. Acad der Wissensch. in Berlin und der Russische Kayserlichen zu St. Petersburg Mitglied.” [qtd. in Stark 1993, 260].

Engelbrecht, Johann (1676-1703)

1691 (Apr 3): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1701 (Sep 13): Magister (Jena).

1702 (Sep 11): AR, Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

Born (Jun 8) and died (Aug 16) in Königsberg.[1] In his lectures he tried to ground rhetoric in Aristotle’s dialectic and politics, as also in his In verba Aristotelis: rhetorica est surculus dialecticaeet politicae (1701). [Arnoldt 1756, 134; Pisanski 1886, 650]


[1] Not to be confused with Johann Engelbrecht, born in Shippenbeil, died (1728) in Thierenberg; 1696 (Apr 26) receives the Magister at Königsberg; 1706 becomes Pastor at Thierenberg (mentioned in Arnoldt 1756, 134; Arnoldt 1777, 17, gives the death date as 1/1/1729).

Engelschmiddt, Johann David (17??-1761)

1743 (Dec 20): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1747: Pastor at the orphanage (Königsberg).

1749: Deacon at the Alt-Roßgarten Church.

1752 (Dec 15): Magister; Assoc. Prof. of Greek.

Also: Engelschmid/Engelschmied. Born in Anhalt-Dessau, died (Mar 5) in Königsberg. He was the inspector at the orphanage in Halle, then moved to Königsberg to served as the inspector at the College Fridericianum. He is not indexed in Oberhausen/Pozzo [1999], so presumably never announced any classes. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 87-88; Arnoldt 1777, 17]. [last update: 21 May 2007]

Fichte, Johann Gottlieb (1762-1814)

1806: Professor at Königsberg (fleeing the Napoleanic forces).

See Jena.

Fischer, Christian Gabriel (1686-1751)

1703 (Mar 31): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1710 (Aug 12): Magister (Jena).

1711 (Jul 28): AR; Lecturer in Philosophy.* (PR: 1712)

1715-25: Assoc. Prof. of Physics.

1721: Lecturing on Wolff’s Vernünftige Gedanken.

1725: Forced by Pietists to leave the university and city; traveled abroad.

Born and died (Dec 15) in Königsberg. Son of the Königsberg merchant Gabriel Fischer (1656-1699). Attended the Altstadt School; entered the university in 1703 to study theology and oriental languages. Received his magister degree from Jena, and then studied further in Rostock. He was a friend of Melchior Philipp Hartmann, helping him order and catalog his amber collection. He declared himself an empiricist in a physics lecture announcement in 1717 [Selle 1956, 133]. As a theologian and a physicist, he lectured on Wolff, and was eventually chased out of the university by the Pietists in 1725 because of his attacks against them (on November 15, the King gave him 24 hours to leave Königsberg, and 48 hours to leave Prussia, just as he had dealt with Wolff in 1723). Fischer returned to Königsberg in 1736, but never regained a position as a professor. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.418; Meusel; Pisanski 1886, 526; APB; ADB; Wotschke 1928, 45; Selle 1956, 133-35; Klemme 1994, 19]

Select Publications:

Vernunftige Gedanken von der Natur (1743).

Flottwell, Christian (1681-1727)

1697 (Apr 1): Matriculation (Law/Königsberg).

1705 (Dec 20): Magister (Wittenberg).

1706 (Nov 17): AR, Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1707: Deacon at the Löbenicht Church.

1708: Deacon at the Cathedral.

Also: Flotwell. Born (Mar 31) and died (Apr 25) in Königsberg. Father of Cölestin Christian (see below). [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 136-37; Arnoldt 1777, 64] [last update: 23 May 2007]

Flottwell, Coelestin Christian (1711-1759)

1724 (Sep 27): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1730: Continues studies at Jena.

1733 (Oct 17): Magister (Jena).

1734 (Aug 27): AR.

1735: Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1743: Full Prof. of German Rhetoric (a new chair in the philosophy faculty); director of the German literary society.

1750: Rector of the Cathedral School (replaced Salthenius).

Born (Apr 5) and died (Jan 2) in Königsberg. Son of Christian Flottwell (see above); imbued in Wolffian philosophy at Jena, where he received his magister degree. Affiliated with Gottsched in Leipzig, later returned to Königsberg, where he habilitated (PR = 5/11/1735) despite the resistance of the Pietists, and was promoted to a new chair of German Rhetoric in 1743 (PL = 11/11), and made director of the new German Society. He thought little of the Pietists, writing to Gottsched that “our theological faculty consists of men who either have perjured themselves more than once, like Dr. [F. A.] Schulz, or who are stupid, like Dr. [J. D.] Kypke, or who are conceited and envious, like Dr. [D. H.] Arnoldt, or who have become a friend with the devil himself [D. L. Salthenius]” (qtd. in Erdmann [1876, 37]). [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.415; Goldbeck 1782, 176; Meusel; Pisanski 1886, 475; Wotschke 1929/30, 41f., 92]

Friderich, Johann (16??-1734)

1699 (Apr 25): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1704 (Sep 18) Magister (Königsberg).

1705: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1711, 1720: Assistant Deacon, then Deacon at the Tragheim Church.

Also: Friderichs. Born and died (Feb 8) in Königsberg. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 137]

Fromm, Nathanael Ephraim (1701-1762)

1720: Matriculation (Rostock).

1722: Leipzig.

1723 (Nov 9): Magister (Rostock).

1724: Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1724: Private tutor near Pr. Holland.

1728: Pastor in Marienburg.

Also: From. Born in Dirschau, died (Mar 18) in Marienburg. Son of a pastor in Dirschau. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 90; APB]

Funk, Johann Daniel (1721-1764)

1735 (Nov 3): Matriculation, with law faculty (Königsberg).

1738 (Feb 3): AR (again as a student).

1741 (Dec 13): Matriculation (Frankfurt/Oder).

1749 (Apr 9): Lecturer with the law faculty (Königsberg).*

1763: Kriminalrat.

Also: Funck. Born 11 Sep 1721 in Pröckuls (in Pr.); died 7 Apr 1764 in Königsberg. A popular lecturer of law, and a close friend of Kant’s (Kuehn calls him “Kant’s closest friend” [2001, 149]), Hamann’s, and Hippel’s; he married Knutzen’s widow; died abruptly from an infection. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 91; Pisanski 1886, 602; Kuehn 2001,110-12, 149]

Gasser, Christian Heinrich (1680-1753)

1703 (Aug 28): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1707, 1709: Prorector, rector in Rastenburg.

1710: Rector in Marienburg.

1711: PR.

1712-28: Pastor in Dollstädt.

1735: Pastor in Liebstadt.

Born (April) in Kolberg (Pomerania), died (Apr 27) in Liebstadt. It appears he held a pro receptione disputation in Königsberg in 1711, but his various appointments suggest that he never held lectures at the university. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 138; APB]

Gehrke, Michael (1679-1721)

1679 (Apr 13): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1704 (Sep 18): Magister (Königsberg).

1705: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1714: Assoc. Prof. (temporary).

1716: Full Prof. of Greek.

Also: Gercke. Born (Jan 31) in Rastenburg (Prussia), died (Jun 14) in Königsberg. When he applied for the full professorship of Greek, a letter of support was signed by 124 of his students and included the following: “This diligent man works 10 hours each day on his lecturing, and the 11th is for conferences where any student can come to him with their questions" (qtd. in Bornhak 1900, 87). [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.371-2, 433]

Gensichen, Johann Friedrich (1759-1807)

1778 (Jul 29): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1790: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1795: Assoc. Prof. of Mathematic (PL in 1794).

Johann Friedrich Gensichen was born in 1759, and died in Königsberg on 7 September 1807. He was a respected professor of mathematics at the university in Königsberg and a close associate of Kant’s in his later years. Kant named Gensichen as the executor of his will (later replaced by Wasianski), and also left him his small library, which was then auctioned after Gensichen’s death. A longer biography of Gensichen is also available. [Sources: Abegg 1976; HM; Metzger 1804; Vorländer 1924; Stark 1993, 29-32; see also a website developed by a descendant of Gensichen.]

Select Publications:

De figuris inscriptis maximis nec non de figuarum divisione (Königsberg: Hartung, 1790).

Bemerkungen über die Theorien der Parallelen des Herrn Hofprediger Schultz und der Herren Gensichen und Bendavid (Libau: Johann Daniel Friedrich, 1796).

Georgi, Hieronymus (1659-1717)

1677 (Apr 13): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1685 (Apr 26): Magister and Lecturer in Philosophy.

1688: 2nd inspector of the alumnat.

1694: Full Prof. of Poetry.

1701-7: Owner of a book printing business.

Born (May 13) and died (Jul 12) in Königsberg. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, i.346, ii.403-4; Pisanski 1886, 521; APB; NDB]

Gerhardt, Johann Heinrich (17??-1???)

1757: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

Or: Gerhard. Pisanski notes that Gerhard (whom he refers to as the ‘Baudirector’) received in 1757 his privilege to teach theoretical and practical mathematics. [Sources: Pisanski 1886, 691]

Gottsched, Johann Christoph (1700-1766)

1714 (Mar 19): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1723 (Apr 2): Magister and Lecturer (Königsberg).*

1724: Flees to Leipzig to escape conscription.

See Leipzig.

Gottsched, Johann (1668-1704)

1684: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1691: Promoted as Physikus (Bartenstein)??

1694: Lic. med.; Assoc. Prof. of Medicine (Königsberg).

1701: Dr. of Medicine (Jul 14); Full Prof. of Physics; member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences (Nov 7).

1702 (Jan 10): Magister (Königsberg).

Born (Jul 15) and died (Apr 10) in Königsberg; the son of a baker and director of a poorhouse. Attended the Altstadt school, then the Albertina, traveled in Holland, Italy, and Germany, returned to Königsberg to study medicine, and began teaching as an Assoc. Prof. of Medicine. In 1701, after money was made available for a Full Prof. of Physics, he became the first to hold this title. As a physician, he was influenced by Cartesian physics. He died while writing a natural history of Prussia, finishing three volumes on the flora. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.330-31, 395, 433; Jöcher; APB; Selle 126]

Gräf, Johann Hartmann Christoph (1744-1820)

1783: Professor of Theology (Königsberg).

Johann Hartmann Christoph Gräf was a theology professor at Königsberg and pastor at the Cathedral church.

Select Publications:

Handbuch zur Erleichterung des Gebrauchs des Preußischen Landes-Katechism (Leipzig, 1790-94).

Gregorovius, Johann Adam, Sr. (1681-1749)

1701 (Jun 16): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1712: Magister (Halle).

1717 (Mar 30): Dr. of Law; Assoc. Prof. of Natural and International Law.

1726 [or 1725]: Acting Full Prof. of Practical Philosophy.

1728: Full Prof. of Practical Philosophy.

Born (Dec 24) in Johannisburg (Pr.), he was one of the last Aristotelians at Königsberg, and also one of the first to give his lectures in German on a regular basis. He also published some of his essays in German. [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746, ii.392, 419; Pisanski 1886, 522; Selle 1956, 126]

Gregorovius, Johann Adam, Jr. (1723-1760)

1744 (Sep 4): Magister (Königsberg).

1751: Assoc. Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics (but he never occupied this professorship).

Professor of law (since SS 1746?). [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.433]

Grossmann, Christoph (16??-17??)

1702 (Sep 25): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1711: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

Also: Grosmann. From Godoken (Pr.). [Arnoldt 1756, 142-3, lists a Christoph Grossman from Rastenburg, who was conrector (1710), then prorector (1711), of the Aldstadt Church. Magister degree from Jena. Died 1729.]

Grube, Christoph (1692-1740)

1713 (Apr 20): Magister (Königsberg).

1720: Pastor, Tragheim Church (Königsberg).

Christoph Grube was born (11 Jan 1692) and died (22 Apr 1740) in Königsberg. He was a pastor at the Tragheim church. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 143; 1777, 18] [last update: 21 May 2007]

Grube, George Christopher (1687-1745)

1709: Hofgerichtsadvocat (Königsberg).

1713: Dr. of Law (Franecker).

1715: Assoc. Prof. of Law (Königsberg).

1722: Hofhalsgerichtsasseßor (Königsberg).

1739: 4th Full Prof. of Law (Königsberg).

Born in Königsberg in 1687 to George Gruben (died 1723), a young jurist trained at Frankfurt/Oder (J.D., 1684) who would eventually become a Hofgerichtsrat(1695) in Königsberg. Georg Christopher taught in Königsberg as an Associate Professor of Law since 1739, eventually becoming the 4th Full Professor of Law in 1738. He died on 25 Feb 1745. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.258, 275; Pisanski 1886, 362-63; Hagelgans 1737]

Grube, Gottfried Friedrich (1687-1723)

1711 (Jul 21): AR (Königsberg).

1716: Lecturer in Philosophy?

1719: Deacon in Labiau.

Also: Gottfried Heinrich. Died (Jul 15) in Königsberg. Received his magister degree from Jena. Later a Deacon in Labiau. He was known as an Aristotelian. [Twin brother to Georg Christopher?][1] [Sources: Pisanski 1886, 523]


[1] Arnoldt [1777, 41, 202] lists two entries: (1) Born in Königsberg magister at Jena, ordained June 26, 1744, pastor in Uderwangen since 1756, and (2) Deacon in Tapiau since 1744. Died May 29, 1768.

Grube, Johann Christoph (17??-17??)

1741 (Oct 20): AR, Philosophy.

Gütther, Christian Heinrich (1696-1755)

1711 (Apr 10): (Königsberg).

1718: Magister (Jena).

1722-52: Assoc. Prof. of Greek (Königsberg).

1738-55: Librarian, Wallenrodt Library (replaced J. C. Volbrecht).

1739: Hofrat.

1752: Full Prof. of Rhetoric and History.

????: Trip to England.

Born and died in Königsberg. Son of Matthäus Gütther (28 Oct 1657-15 Sep 1707), a deacon in the Löbenicht church. Studied in Königsberg, Jena, and Halle. He founded the “Free Society” in 1745 and served as its first director. This was a group dedicated to furthering German and Latin prose and poetry. As such, he stood in competition with Flottwell and his Deutsche Gesellschaft, although Gottsched was on friendly terms with both Gütther and Flottwell, and the two societies eventually merged in 1781. Hagelgans [1737] lists him as a Full Prof. of Philosophy. [Sources: Arnoldt 1777, 64; Goldbeck 1782, 152-3; APB] [last update: 23 May 2007]

Hagen, Karl Gottfried (1749-1829)

1769: Matriculation (Königsberg) to study medicine.

1772: Assumed the family pharmacy upon his father’s death.

1773: Passed the Pharmacy exam in Berlin.

1775: Lecturer in Medicine (Königsberg).

1779: Assoc. Prof. of Medicine (Königsberg).

1788: Full Prof. of Medicine (Königsberg).

1807: Full Prof. of Physics, Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Botany in the philosophy faculty (Königsberg).

Karl Gottfried Hagen was born (24 Dec 1749) and died (2 Mar 1829) in Königsberg. He was the son of the court pharmacist, and eventually assumed the family business, as well as lecturing at the university on experimental chemistry, botandy, and pharmacy. During the 1790s he was a regular dinner guest of Kant’s, and was an important source of information on the natural sciences. A longer biography of Hagen is also available. [Sources: Metzger 1804, 62-63; Reusch 1848, 29-30; APB; ADB; NDB] [last update: 6 Jul 2007]

Select Publications:

Grundriß der Experimentalchemie (Königsberg, 1780).

Hahn, Johann Bernhard, Sr. (1685-1755)

1700 (Apr 1): Matriculation in Königsberg.

1705: Moved to Frankfurt/Oder.

1706 (Apr 27): Magister (Frankfurt/Oder).

1706-8: Jena.

1709 (Feb 22): AR, Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).

1714: Assoc. Prof. of Oriental Languages. [Arnoldt: 1713]

1715: Full Prof. of Oriental Languages.

1717 (Mar 16): Dr. of Theology in absentia (Greifswald).

1745 (Apr 30): Inspector of the Königsberg synagoge.

Johann Bernhard Hahn was born (12 Jun 1685) in Pörschken (Kreis Heiligenbeil) and died (8 Jul 1755) in Königsberg. He was the son of a pastor. Studied at Frankfurt/Oder and Jena; traveled through Germany, Holland, and England. He was dean of the philosophy faculty in 1755 when Kant received his magister degree on 12 June 1755, and gave a speech over the ancient Jews on that occasion. Served as rector of the university four times, including SS 1740, when Kant matriculated. He was a decisive opponent of Pietism [glossary]. While promoted (at the university of Greifswald) to a Dr. of Theology, he never lectured in the theology faculty. Pisanski lists him as teaching oriental languages in 1713 [1886, 637]. [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746, ii.364; Meusel; APB; Wotschke 1928, 90; Dietzsch 2003, 178] [last update: 25 May 2007]

Hahn, Johann Bernhard, Jr. (1725-1794)

1739 (Jul 7): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1744: Magister; lecturer in Philosophy.

1749: Assoc. Prof. of Rhetoric and History.

Son of Professor J. B. Hahn, Sr. (see above). Served as 2nd inspector of the College from 1748-55 and 1757-70. Retired in 1778, but continued to offer private lectures. [Sources: Goldbeck 1782, 87; Meusel]

Halter, Andreas (1714?-1799)

1734 (Oct 2): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1744: Magister, Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1747: Catechist at the St. George Hospital church (Königsberg).

Born in Königsberg, where he also died in 1799 (“at age 85” — Rhesa). Andreas Halter was a pastor at St. George’s Hospital (where Kant attended school as a young boy, before attending the Collegium Fridericianum). He appears in the faculty minutes as teaching in 1766, and is also listed in the Address-Calender for 1770 along with seven other Magistri Legentes.[1] Hartung lists him as a professor from 1788-91, without specifying the discipline or status [1825, 264]. T. G. Hippel [bio] studied Hebrew with him in the late 1750s. Kant includes him in a list of philosophy faculty professors that he jotted down in some notes on anthropology (and dated by Adickes as written in 1790/91 or 1791); see also the Opus postumum [Ak. 22:14]. SS 1791 is the last semester that courses are listed under his name in the Lecture Catalog. [Sources: Arnoldt 1777, 46; Arnoldt 1908-9, v.207; Goldbeck 1782, 87; Rhesa 1834, 15; Lindemann-Stark 2001, 94] [last update: 27 May 2007]


[1] Immanuel Kandt, Georg Christoph Pisanski, Johann Thiesen, Daniel Weimann, Carl Daniel Reusch, Michael Jäschke, and August Wilhelm Wlochatius.

Hartmann, Melchior Philipp (1685-1765)

1714: Assoc. Prof. of Medicine.

1718: 4th, then 3rd Full Prof. of Medicine.

1727: 2nd Full Prof. of Medicine.

1728: 1st Full Prof. of Medicine.

Born and died in Königsberg; the son of a professor of medicine (Philipp Jakob Hartmann, 1648-1707). Studied medicine in Leyden and Königsberg. He was the senior medical professor at least since 1737; in the last semester that his courses were announced (WS 1765/66), the KGPZ announced in its semi-annual listing of the courses: “The senior member of our Academy, D. Hartmann, will, if God grants him the life and health, clarify the illnesses of old age, 2 pm.” [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746, ii.313, 317-9; APB, Oberhausen/Pozzo 1999]

Hasse, Johann Gottfried (1759-1806)

????: Magister (Jena).

1786: Lecturer in Philosophy (Jena).

1787: Full Prof. of Oriental Languages (Königsberg).* [Ak: 1786]

1788: Full Prof. of Theology (Königsberg).

1790: Rector of the Cathedral School; Consistory Advisor.

Born in Weimar, died in Königsberg; the son of poor parents. Taught at Jena until 1786 when he came to Königsberg (SS 1787).[1] Beginning in 1800, he taught the four-hour seminar on “theoretical and practical pedagogy” that Wald initiated in 1790.[2] In 1789 he hoped to rent Kant’s lecture room (letter of June 18); whether Kant agreed to this is not known. He replaced Kant on the academic senate after Kant’s retirement in 1801, and was a regular table guest of Kant’s during the last three years. This led to his publishing a short biographical sketch (1804). Hasse represented Herder’s views on language and poetry in his lectures. Metzger notes his gifts as a philologist and classicist, as well as an exemplary teacher. [Sources: Metzger 1804, 66; Reicke 1860, 42; APB; NDB]

Select Publications:

Letzte Äußerungen Kants von einem seinem Tischgenossen (Königsberg, 1804).


[1] Puttlich writes in his diary of 1786: “26. November [Sunday]. The new Prof. of oriental languages, Herr Hasse from Jena, who has taken the place of Prof. Köhler...” and “27. November [Monday]. Hasse began lecturing today...” [Warda 1905, 293]. This suggests that Hasse began lecturing at Königsberg a bit after the start of WS 1786-87 (October 9).

[2] Schwarz [1915, 58].

Hedio, Andreas (1640-1703)

1657: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1663: Magister (Jena).

1667: Full Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics (Königsberg).

1679: 1st inspector of the alumnat (replacing Röling).

1694: Librarian, University Library.

Born (Jul 16) and died (Jul 11) in Königsberg. Attended the Löbenicht School, then the university, later receiving the magister degree at Jena. Full Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics at Königsberg, where he served three times as rector (1684, 1692, 1700). He also lectured on physics (there was no separate chair of physics until 1701). [Sources: Arnoldt 1746 i.337, ii.384-5, 395; Pisanski 1886, 291; APB]

Heiligendoerffer, David (170?-17??)

1720 (Jun 10): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1733 (Jul 8): AR.

1734: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

Also: Heiligendorf. Not in Arnoldt. [Sources: Wotschke 1929/30, 41f.]

Hein, Georg (16??-1740)

1695: (Mar 28): Matriculation? (Königsberg).

1700 (Apr 15): Magister (Königsberg).

1705: Pastor in Brandenburg (in Pr.).

Born in Königsberg, died (Jan 28) in Brandenburg. Lecturer in Philosophy. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 146]

Heintz, Karl Reinhold (1745-1807)

1779: Full Prof. of Law.

Mentioned in Kant’s letter to Herz (Jan. 1779) as having passed him information about Herz’s lecturing activity in Berlin.

Hess, Johann Gottfried (16??-17??)

1694 (Sep 21): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1703 (Jan 29): AR, Lecturer in Philosophy.

Also: Hesse.

Holtzhauer, Georg Friedrich (1746-1801)

1779: Full Prof. of Law.

1796: Director and chancellor of the university.

Served as rector in SS 1785, 1787, 1789, 1793, 1797, and 1801. After his colleagues W. B. Jester (1736-85) and C. R. Braun (1714-82), Holtzhauer was the only professor teaching law at Königsberg, and thus the perpetual dean of the law faculty as well (he offered the only courses in SS 1785, after which M. C. Johswich offered classes as an adjunct, and then D. C. Reidenitz in SS 1788, who also was promoted to professor in 1790; and T. A. H. Schmalz arrived from Rinteln in 1789 as a professor). Hartung gives his death-year as 1807. [Sources: Metzger 1804, 38; Hartung 1825, 265]

Hoyer, Ernst (171?-17??)

1724 (Oct 10): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1733 (Jul 8): AR.

1735: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

Hoynovius, Michael (1659-1711)

1675 (Apr 20): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1684 (Feb 9): Magister (Jena).

1684 (Sep 13): AR, Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).

1690: Rector at the Löbesnicht School.

1702: Rector at the Altstadt School.

Born (Mar 8) in Milken (Kreis Lötzen, Pr.), died (Nov 8) in Königsberg. Son of a deacon. There are two matriculation entries. The first (20 April 1675) reads: “Hoynovius, Mich. Milca-Borr.”; the second comes the following year (14 Arpril 1676) and reads: “Hoynovius, Mich., Milka e ditione Leziensi Pruss., diaconi ecclesiae isthic bene meriti filius, orphanus, B. Johannis Prostka, pastoris isthic, e filia nepos”; also listed as “e schola Loebenici cum benedictione praeceptorum dimissi, iur.omnes”. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.516-17; Goldbeck 1782, 184; Pisanksi 1886, 498; APB]

Jachmann, Johannes Benjamin (1765-1832)

1781 (Sep 28): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1788 (summer): Leaves for travels through England, Scotland, France.

1791: Returns to Königsberg and begins a private medical practice.

1794 (Jul 28): Marries Johanna Dorothea Elisabeth Kanter (Königsberg).

1798-99: Lecturer of Medicine (Königsberg).

1801: Leaves Königsberg.

Born in Königsberg, the son of a shoemaker. He matriculated at the university in 1781 and soon became a student of Kant’s, as well as his amanuensis [glossary] from the spring of 1784 to 1788 when he left on travels through England, Scotland, and France. The clean copy of Kant's Grundlegung is in Jachmann's hand. He worked as a tutor for the wife of Pierre Jeremie Courtan, a merchant with the French colony in Königsberg, where J. G. Hamann made his acquaintance, and eventually Jachmann became good friends with Hamann's son, Michael.

During his travels, he would send descriptive letters back to Kant (from Edinburgh, 15 April 1789, #354, and 9 October 1789, #386; from Halle, 14 October 1790 (concerning his experiences in revolutionary France and Göttingen). While in Edinburgh he gave lectures on Kant’s philosophy. Kant wrote recommendations for him to visit Blumenbach and Kästner at Göttingen. He later practiced as a physician, married a daughter of Kanter’s, and offered occasional courses in the medical faculty at the Albertina: SS 1798 (physiology), WS 98/99 (venereal disease), and SS 99 (physiology). His younger brother, Reinhold Bernhard [bio], who became an important educational reformer in Prussia, also studied with Kant and served for a few years as his amanuensis. [Sources: Arnoldt 1908-9, v.278-9; NDB; O/P]

Jäsche, Gottlob Benjamin (1762-1842)

Summer 1777- Spring 1783: Elisabethanum Gymnasium (Breslau).

1783-85: studied theology (Halle). [ADB: until 1786]

1791-94: studied philosophy (Königsberg). [ADB: until 1795]

1795: Magister (Halle).

1799 (Oct 11): Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1801 (July): Moves to Danzig.

1802 (Spring): Full Prof. of Philosophy (Dorpat).

(Also: Jähsche; first name is often wrongly listed as ‘Gottlieb’) Jäsche was born on 3 July 1762 in Wartenberg (near Breslau/Wroclow, in Silesia; now Poland) and died on 25 August 1842 in Dorpat (Tartu, Estonia). He is remembered primarily as an associate of Kant’s and the editor of Kant’s logic lectures [1800].

His father was a pastor and rector of the local school, and young Gottlob was tutored at home before entering the gymnasium in Breslau in 1777. He then studied theology at Halle (1783-85) under Nösselt [bio], Bahrdt [bio], and J. A. Eberhard [bio], then philosophy at Königsberg (Fall 1791, although his name does not appear in the Matrikel), attending Kant’s lectures on anthropology and metaphysics, as well as lectures by Kraus [bio] and Schmalz [bio]. Jäsche returned to Halle to receive his magister degree (1795), then returned to Königsberg where he habilitated (1799), and lectured for the next two years on metaphysics (using L. H. Jakob [bio], Grundriß der allg. Logik and C. C. Schmid [bio], Grundriß der Metaphysik), encyclopedia of philosophy (lecturing from his own notes), history of philosophy (using J. G. Gurlitt, Abriß der Geschichte der Philosophie), and logic (using Jakob, and then in SS 01 his own edited volume of Kant’s logic lectures).

Jäsche moved to Danzig in July 1801, bringing with him a large number of manuscripts given to him by Kant, and in the spring of 1802 assumed a professorship of philosophy at the newly founded universtiy at Dorpat (Tartu, Estonia). Much of this Kantiana was then passed on to Karl Morgenstern [bio], a younger colleague at Dorpat.

One point of unclarity in Jäsche’s chronology is the time he spent as a student at Königsberg. He arrived for the WS 91/92, and he attended Kant’s lectures on anthropology and metaphysics (and these are winter semester courses). It would have been odd for him not to have attended Kant’s logic lectures the following summer as well, but he doesn’t mention having ever attended them in his preface to Kant’s published logic lectures (and he almost certainly would have mentioned this, had he actually attended). All of this suggests that he might have studied in Königsberg just that one semester, rather than until 1794, when he returned to Halle. A biography with a more complete bibliography of Jäsche is also available. [Sources: HM, 3:503-4, 10:11, 11:394, 14:223, 18:253, 23:15-16; ADB; NDB; BBK; Stark 1987a, 146; O/P] [last update: 30 Jan 2008]

Select Publications:

De arctissimo disciplinarum inter se nexu (Königsberg: Hartung, 1799). [habilitationsschrift]

(anon.) Ueber reinen Naturalismus und positive insonderheit christliche Religion und deren Verhältniß zur Volksaufklärung (Berlin: Königlich-Preußische Akademische Kunst- und Buchhandlung, 1790).

Stimme eines Arktikers über Fichte und sein Verfahren gegen die Kantianer (1799), 149 pp.

(editor), Immanuel Kants Logik, ein Handbuch zu Vorlesungen (Königsberg: F. Nicolovius, 1800).

(co-edited with F. T. Rink), Mancherley zur Geschichte der metacritischen Invasion, nebst einem Fragment einer ältern Metacritik von Johann George Hamann, genannt der Magus in Norden, und einigen Aufsätzen, die Kantische Philosophie betreffend (Königsberg: F. Nicolovius, 1800).

Grundlinien zu einer Architektonik und systematischen Universal-Encyklopädie der Wissenschaften (Dorpat, 1816).

Grundlinien der Ethik oder philosophische Sittenlehre (Dorpat, 1824).

Kurze Darstellung der philosophische Religionslehre (Dorpat, 1825).

Jaeschke, Michael (173?-17??)

1752 (Nov 30): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1765: Magister & Lecturer (PR in 1766).

Listed in the Lecture Catalog for WS 70/71 and WS 71/72. Served also as conrector of the Alstadt school. [Sources: Goldbeck 1782, 88, 174]

Jester, Friedrich Christian (1708-1779)

1722 (Oct 5): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1729 (Apr 23) Magister (Halle).

1730 (Nov 20): AR, Philosophy.

1734, 1738: Adjunct Pastor, then Pastor, at the Hospital Church in Königsberg.

1750: Deacon at the Altstadt Church.

Also: Jesterus; Christian Friedrich. Born (4 Feb 1708) and died (3 Mar 1779) in Königsberg; Sigismund Christoph Jester was a younger brother. He was the Archdeacon of the Altstadt church. He lectured for a few years in Königsberg (after returning from various travels, but then devoted himself to his pastoral work. Listed as the 1st deacon of the Altstadt church in the Addressbook of 1770. [Sources: Arnoldt 1777, 27; Hamberger/Meusel 1778, 232; Goldbeck 1781, 214] [last update: 21 Jul 2011]

Jester, Sigismund Christoph (1715-1773)

17??: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1739: Assist. Prof. of Law (Königsberg).

1752: 4th Full Prof. of Law (Königsberg).

Born (9 January 1715) in Königsberg, where he also died (1773). He was a younger brother to Friedrich Christian Jester. His father (Erhard Christian Jester, 1676-1767) was a pastor in Königsberg; his mother was Johanna Dorothea Ranger (1684-1730). He married (2 Feb 1739) Maria Charlotte von Sahme (a daughter of the law professor Reinhold Friedrich von Sahme [bio]) [Sources: ] [last update: 21 Jul 2011]

Jester, Wilhelm Bernard (1736-1785)

1752: Matriculation (Königsberg).

1763: Hofgerichtsadvokat.

1764: Dr. of Law; Lecturer in Law.

1765: Kriminalrat.

1773: Full Prof. of Law.

1779: 1st Full Prof. of Law; Chancellor of the University.

1780-85: Librarian, Wallenrodt Library (replaced C. A. Christiani).

Born (14 January 1736) in Königsberg, where he also died (9 February 1785). He is the son of a lawyer (Johann Bernhard, 5 May 1706-1755) and Sophia Röckner (a great-granddaughter of the poet Simon Dach). He married Sophia Charlotte Schimmelpfennig on 3 May 1763. [Sources: Metzger 1804, 37; APB; NDB]

Johann, Anton (171?-1749)

1732 (Apr 5): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1740 (Sept.): Magister (Halle).

1740 (Nov 11): AR.

1741: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1747 (Sep 22): Pastor in Lichtenhagen

Born in Königsberg, died (Dec 8) in Lichtenhagen. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 103; Arnoldt 1777, 191]

Johansen, Heinrich Wilhelm (1725-1752)

1743 (Sep 19): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1750 (Apr 14): Magister (Königsberg).

1751: PR.

1752 (SS): Assoc. Prof. of Mathematics.

Also: Johanßen, Johanszen. Born (1023) and died (Aug 4) in Königsberg. Announced classes one semester only (both public and private lectures). [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 77]

Johswich, Martin Christian (174?-17??)

1764 (Sep 25): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1769: Magister.

1770: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1774-75: Prorector of the Royal Provincial School at Lyck.

1785 (Jun 4): Dr. of Law.

Born in Kutten (by Angerburg), studied in Königsberg and received his Magister degree. As a student, he participated in F. T. Baranski’s disputation (20 Dec. 1768). Goldbeck [1781] notes that he did not lecture, although he was a Privatdozent with the university; a year later, Goldbeck [1782] noted that he was no longer giving lectures. Nonetheless, Puttlich’s diary entry of 22 September 1785 reads: “I heard today that Johswich was booed at his Inaugural-Disputation and that no one gave a response [to the lecture] in the afternoon”[1] [Warda 1905, 282]. [Sources: Goldbeck 1781, 238-39; Goldbeck 1782, 89; Warda 1905, 280-82] [last update: 11 Dec 2010]

Select Publications:

D. de immortalitate spiritum rationis haud expertuim (Königsberg, 1770).


[1] Original: Ich hörte heute erzählen, daß der Johswich bey seiner Inaugural-disputation gestern wäre ausgepfiffen worden u. daß ihm Nachmittag niemand opponiert hätte.

Kant, Immanuel (1724-1804)

1740 (Sep 24): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1740-48: Student at the Albertina.

1748-5?: Private tutor outside of Königsberg.

1755 (Jun 12): Magister.

1755: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1766 (Apr)-1772 (Apr): 2nd Librarian, University Library (replaced J. B. Goraiski).[1]

1770 (SS): Full Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics (replaced Buck).*

1786 (Dec 7): Member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences.

1796 (Jul 23): Kant gives his last lecture, with about six weeks left in the term.

1801 (Nov. 14): Kant agrees to retire from his professorship.

Also: Kandt. Born (22 Apr 1724) and died (12 Feb 1804) in Königsberg; the son of a master harnessmaker. Attended the Collegium Fridericianum, then the Albertina, leaving without a magister degree to work as a private tutor. Returned to the university in 1755 and received his degree (Jun 12) [writings], habilitated (PR: Sep 27) [writings], and began lecturing on October 13 of that year [more]. Kant applied unsuccessfully for Knutzen’s old position of Assoc. Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics (vacant since 1751) [more], and then unsuccessfully for the Full Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics in 1758 left vacant by J. D. Kypke’s death [more]. He was offered a position as Full Prof. for Rhetoric and Poetry in 1764, which he declined. Since 1770 (PL: Aug 21) Full Professor of Logic and Metaphysics (replaced Buck, who had accepted a position as Full Prof. of Mathematics) [more]. Kant held his chair until his death, although he stopped teaching in SS 1796 [more]. His position was filled in 1805 by W. T. Krug. Early biographies of Kant include: Borowski [1804], Jachmann [1804], Wasianski [1804], Hasse [1804], Mellin [1804], Rink [1805], Reusch [1848], and the materials collected by Wald and printed in Reicke [1860]. All of these biographical materials and more have been collected in Kuehn [2002, 8 vols.]. See also Kant’s life. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 158-9; Goldbeck 1782, 84; ADB] [last update: 30 Jul 2011]


[1] Pisanski [1886, 493] has 1766-71 [1886, 493]; but see Warda [1899b].

Kanter, Johann Jakob (1738-1786)

Johann Jakob Kanter was born (1738) and died 18 April 18 1786 in Königsberg, where he was a publisher, bookseller, and Immanuel Kant’s landlord.

He was the son of Philipp Christoph Kanter (d. 1764), a printer and binder who opened a book shop at Langgasse 23 at the corner of Schmiedegasse (in the Altstadt). The elder Kanter was both a printer and a binder, and he made a small fortune printing Quandt’s [bio] bible and hymnal. When he died in 1764, the inheritance was divided among his four sons, all of whom remained in some aspect of the book business. The three older brothers were Daniel Christoph (d. 1812), who ran the family print shop (with seven presses, it was the largest in the city); Alexander, who poured metal-type; and Philipp Christoph Jr, who ran the bookbindery and the paper business. 

The youngest son, Johann Jacob Kanter (1738-1786), learned the book trade in Leipzig, returned to Königsberg in 1760, received a publishing privilege during the Russian Occupation [glossary] (later confirmed by Friederich the Great), and received a privilege to publish a newspaper so long as it brought no harm to Hartung’s business (who already had a newspaper publishing privilege) — for instance, he could print political news only after a certain period of time had elapsed. This seeming disadvantage actually made him his fortune, as his newspaper — the Königsbergsche Gelehrte und Politische Zeitungen — developed into an important literary organ in Germany, with correspondents in Curland, Poland, St. Petersburg, and throughout Germany, with reviews and articles written by such talents as Hamann, Kant, Hippel, Scheffner, and Herder.

After the great Königsberg fire of 11 November 1764, Kanter rented part of the newly-built Löbenicht Town Hall (on the corner of the Löbenichtsche Langgasse and Münchengasse, with a large square to the west) in 1766, where he installed a bookshop that soon became an important gathering place for the scholars of Königsberg. He rented lodging upstairs — Kant lived with him for eleven years (1766-1777) [more]. The bookshop fell on hard times toward the end of the 1770s, and Kanter gave it up in 1781. After Kanter’s death, the building was sold to G. L. Hartung.

Kanter had a good selection of books and he would loan them out (of which both Kant and Hamann were beneficiaries). Kanter pubished books (including seven by Kant) and his newspaper (in which Kant published six items), but his real interest was in retail. He also had a printing shop in Marienwerder, a filial in Elbing, and (purchased in 1775) a papermill in Trutenau (several sets of notes from Kant’s lectures were written on paper with the Trutenau watermark). Kant’s former student and amanuensis, Johannes Benjamin Jachmann [bio], married Kanter’s daughter.

Kanter is listed as offering a course in the philosophy faculty for WS 1770/71. [Sources: Krause 1881, 76-77; Gause 1996, ii.128, 233-37; Vorländer 1924, i.181; Oberhausen/Pozzo 1999] [last update: 4 Aug 2013]

Keber, Georg (16??-1711)

1693 (Jul 13): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1704 (Sep 18): Magister (Königsberg), Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1707: Pastor in Lindenau (in Balgischen).

Born in Pr. Holland, died as a pastor in Lindenau. He was known as an Aristotelian. [Sources: Arnoldt 1756, 153; Pisanski 1886, 523]

Kesselring, Ernst Friedrich 1 (1685-1763)

1701 (Oct 12): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1708 (Jun 14): AR, Philosophy.

1708 (Oct 26): Adjunct Pastor at Germau.

Born (Jul 30) in Königsberg, died (Dec 8) in Germau. Received his magister from Rostock. He suffered a stroke on Christmas 1750. [Sources: Arnoldt 1777, 10]

Kesselring, Ernst Friedrich 2 (1713-1745)

1731 (Sep 27): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1739 (March): Magister (Halle).

1740 (Aug 2): AR, Philosophy (Königsberg).

1743: Army chaplain.

Born in Germau (Pr.), died (Aug 25) during a military campaign near Oppeln (Schlesia), where he was serving as an army chaplain. He is possibly the son of E. F. Kesselring 1 (above) and twin-brother to Johann Heinrich (below) After receiving his magister degree in Halle under Baumgarten (on the topic de αναμαρτησια [anamartesia, sinlessness] ab hominibus in hac vita non obtinenda, he traveled in France and Germany, then returned to Königsberg and habilitated with an essay demonstrating that there are no imperfections in the world (1740). Three years later he took up a position as army chaplain, and died during a military campaign in Silesia. [Sources: Arnoldt 1769, 103; Pisanski 1886, 536]

Select Publications:

De mundi optmi absque malo impossibilitate (Königsberg, 1740).

Kesselring, Johann Heinrich (1713-1741)

1738: Dr. of Medicine (Halle).

1738: 3rd Full Prof. of Medicine and city physician (Königsberg).

Born (Jan 13) in Germau (Pr.), died (Mar 25) in Königsberg. Traveled in Denmark, Holland, England, and France before receiving his doctorate in Halle. Pisanski (Pisanski’s editor, Rudolph Philippi, indexes him as “Ernst Friedrich Kesselring.”) ascribes a 1723 essay on the instruments needed for a Steinschnitt, possibly the undated essay below) and a 1738 essay on the Fourbet method; but in any event, 1723 is certainly too early a date, if the birth-year is correct. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.317; Pisanski 1886, 630]

Select Publications:

De methodo Fourbetiana administrandi lithotomiam super acu triquetra (Halle, 1741).

Historiam methodorum administrandi lithotomiam (Königsberg).

Knutzen, Martin (1713-1751)

1728 (Sep 30): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1733 (Sep 4): Magister.

1733 (Nov 11): Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1734 (SS): Assoc. Prof. of Logic and Metaphysic.

1740: Appearance of a comet predicted by Knutzen.

1744: Adjunct to the 1st librarian of the Castle Library and to the 1st inspector of the alumnat.

Also: Knutz. Born (14 Dec 1713) and died (29 Jan 1751) in Königsberg, at the age of thirty-seven. He was the only son of Hagen Knudsen, a Danish merchant. Both his parents died by the time he was six, and he was raised thereafter by a great-aunt. Attended the Altstadt School; studied mainly mathematics and philosophy at the Albertina under Ammon, Teske, but also theology with F. A. Schulz, who converted him to Pietism [glossary]. Unlike so many, he received his magister degree at Königsberg (rather than Halle), and began lecturing in the winter of 1733 (pro receptione disputation: 11 Nov 1733, on the impossibility of the eternity of the world), and the following year was appointed associate professor of logic und metaphysics (pro loco disputation: 22 Apr 1735, on mind-body interaction).

Knutzen’s enlightenment tendencies moved him towards the Wolffian philosophy, but he remained at odds on various points (e.g., regarding mind-body interaction, he favored the causal influx theory over a pre-established harmony or occasionalism). Primarily because of Borowski’s comments, Knutzen has been viewed as the closest and most important of Kant’s teachers at the university (Kraus also claims that “the only teacher who could have stimulated Kant’s genius was Knutzen” [Reicke 1860, 7]); for a different perspective, see Kuehn [2001, 78-84]. [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746, ii.424-5, 433; Buck 1764, 176-95; Meusel 1808, v. 7, pp. 153-55; Jöcher/Adelung 1810, v.3, cols. 582-83; APB; ADB; Oberhausen/Pozzo 1999; Erdmann 1876; Waschkies 1987, 34-45] [last update: 3 Feb 2013]

Select Publications:

Diss. de aeternitate mundi impossibili (Königsberg, 1733).

Commentatio philosophica de commercio mentis et corporis per influxum physicum explicando (Königsberg, 1735).

Philosophischer Beweis, von der Wahrheit der christlichen Religion, darinnen die Nothwendigkeit einer geoffenbahreten Religion insgemein, und die Wahrheit oder Gewißheit der christlichen insbesondere aus ungezweifelten Gründen der Vernunft nach mathematischer Lehrart dargethan und behauptet wird (Königsberg, 1740).

Diss. de humanae mentis indivdua natura sive immaterialitate (Königsberg, 1741). Published in German as: Philosophische Abhandlung von der immateriellen Natur der Seele; darinnen theils überhaupt bewiesen wird, daß die Materie nicht denken könne, und daß die Seele unkörperlich sey, theils die vornehmsten Einwürfe der Materialisten deutlich beantwortet werden (Königsberg, 1744)

Commentatio mathematico-philosophica de cultura intellectus per studium matheseos (Königsberg, 1742).

Wohleingerichtetes Akademien, als Grundsäulen ganzen Völker und Länder; eine Rede die J. F. Weitenkampf bey der Universitätsfeyer hielt, und unter Knutze'ns Anleitung ausgearbeitet hatte (Königsberg, 1744).

Vernünftige Gedanken von den Cometen [...] (Königsberg, 1744).

Elementa philosophiae rationalis seu logicae (Königsberg, 1747).

Koehler, Johann Bernhard (1742-1802)

1781 (Aug 13)-1786: Full Prof. of Oriental Languages (Königsberg).*

The Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek reported his call to Königsberg (following the death of J. C. Diederichs), and noted that that he was previously professor at Kiel and Göttingen, and most recently was living privately in his hometown of Lübeck (47:308-9). Metzger claims he died working as a copy editor at a printshop in Basel, having lived a restless life, always dissatisfied with his current situation. [Sources: Pisanski 1886, 637; Goldbeck 1782, 86; Metzger 1804, 55-56] [mentioned in letters: x.417, 430, 452; xii.426]

Kongehl, Christian Gottlieb (1698-1761)

1713 (Jun 8): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1720 (Feb 15): Magister (Leipzig).

1721 (Sep 4): AR, Lecturer in Philosophy (Königsberg).*

1726, 1735: Adjunct, then Deacon in Tragheim.

1740: Pastor at Tragheim Church.

Born (Apr 7) and died (Nov 2) in Königsberg, the son of the Prussian poet and mayor of Altdorf, Michael Kongehl (1646-1710). Ludovici includes him in a list of Wolffians and cites this dissertation: de temperamentorum infirmitate et exiqua in moralibus utilitate (Königsberg, 1721 [Dec. 10]). [Sources: Ludovici 1735, i.344,373; Arnoldt 1769, 104; Wotschke 1928, 62]

Kowalewski, Coelestin (1700-1771)[1]

1715 (Apr 15): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1727 (Sep 2): Law licentiate (Königsberg).

1729: Magister (Halle).

1729: Assoc. Prof. of Rhetoric and History* (Königsberg).

1730 (Jun 29): Dr. of Law (Königsberg).

1733: Consistory advisor (Samland).

1735-52: Full Prof. of Rhetoric and History (Königsberg).*

1752 (SS): Full Prof. of Law and Chancellor of the University (Königsberg).

Also: Kowalevski. Coelestin Kowalewski was born (11 Mar 1700) in Nikolaiken, and died (1771) in Königsberg. He was the son of a pastor. Popular with the students; served four times as rector. Kant honored his death with a few lines of verse: “Die Lehre, welcher nicht das Beyspiel Nachdruck giebt, / Welkt schon beym Unterricht und stirbt unausgeübt. / Umsonst schwillt das Gehirn von Sprüchen und Gesetzen, / Lernt nicht der Iüngling früh das Recht der Menschheit schätzen; / Wird niederm Geitze feind, von Vorurtheil bekehrt, / Wohlwollend, edel, treu und seines Lehrers werth. / Wenn denn gepries’ne Pflicht den Lehrer selbst verbindet, / Der Einsicht im Verstand, im Herzen Tugend gründet: / Wenn reine Redlichkeit, mit Wissenschaft vereint, / Dem Staate Diener zieht, dem Menschen einen Freund; / Dann darf kein schwülstig Lob, kein Marmor ihn erheben, / Er wird auch unberühmt, in ihren Sitten leben” (Ak. 12:395-96). [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.411-12; APB]


[1] Oberhausen/Pozzo [1999] give the death-year as 1772.

Kraus, Christian Jacob (1753-1807)

1771 (Apr 13): Matriculation (Königsberg).[1]

1777 (Apr 24): Moves into the Keyserling home as Hofmeister.

1778-79: in Berlin.

1780: Magister (Halle).

1780 (Dec 28): AR.

1781 (SS): Full Prof. of Practical Philosophy (replaced Christiani).* (PL: Nov 15)

1782-86: 2nd Librarian, City Library (replaced F. J. Buck).

1786-1804: 1st Librarian, City Library (replaced F. J. Buck).

Christian Jakob Kraus was born 27 Jul 1753 in Osterode (Kreis Mohrungen, East Prussia), and died 25 Aug 1807 in Königsberg. His father was a surgeon in Osterode, his mother the mayor’s daughter. His mother died just before he arrived at the university and he apparently received little emotional or financial support from his father.[2] Once in Königsberg he received support from his mother’s brother, Johann Christian Bucholtz, a pastor at the Altstadt church, who found him a place to stay. Unfortunately this uncle also died in 1773, forcing Kraus to support himself at the university by tutoring on the side. 

Kraus presumably matriculated as a theology student, but then in 1773 changed to the law faculty. He was an avid student of Kant’s (attending Kant’s lectures from 1771-74), but it wasn't until his third year at the university that he managed to make Kant’s acquaintance, after which Kant took an active interest in his success. [more] Kraus spent one year — April 1777 to April 1778 — serving as a Hofmeister to the eighteen-year-old Count Archibald Nicolaus Gebhard von Keyserling (a second cousin to Count Heinrich Christian Keyserling [bio], in whose palace in Königsberg he was living), and Kraus continued to live in the Keyserling household even after his Hofmeister duties were over.[3]

After his return to Königsberg as the Professor of Practical Philosophy (1781), Kraus became a regular at Kant’s table and a constant companion before their break in 1789 [Kuehn 2001, 331-34]. (In a letter to Marcus Herz, Kant described him as “one of my favorite and most capable students,” Oct. 20, 1778). While a student, he participated in various disputations, including the pro receptione for Johann Schultz (Aug. 2, 1775). Mendelssohn asked Kant, during his surprise visit to Königsberg (August 1777), whether Kraus (who was away at the time) would be interested in the professorship at Halle vacated by G. F. Meier’s death (Minister Zedlitz had asked Mendelssohn to propose someone)[Voigt 1819, 68-69]. [more]

Today he is best known as having been the first to introduce Adam Smith’s liberal economics into Germany (he devoted a set of lectures to the The Wealth of Nations in SS 1797, just after the German translation by Garve and Dörrien was published). His students included such future luminaries as President von Schön [bio], Minister von Schrötter, and Count Dohna-Wundlacken [bio]. [Sources: Metzger 1804, 65; Sembritzki 1907; Voigt 1819; Reusch 1848, 22-24; Krause 1881; APB; NDB; Stark 1987b; Röttgers 1995] [last update: 8 Aug 2013]


[1] Kraus’s early biographer Voigt [1819, 21] claims that Kraus entered the university in Königsberg in October 1770, but the matriculation records show him enrolling the following spring.

[2] Kraus's father died on 1 Nov 1777; in a letter to his brother dated 15 Nov 1777 Kraus discusses disposing of the estate [Krause 1881, 69-70].

[3] In a letter to his friend, von Auerswald, Kraus wrote (Saturday before Easter, 1777):

[...] I've been moved in with the Count Kaiserling since the 24th of April, where I've taken over the supervision of the son of the recently elevated Chamberlain Kaiserling, a youth of 18 1/2 years. [Voigt 1819, 61]

Seit dem 24sten April bin ich zum Grafen Kaiserling gezogen, wo ich über den Sohn des kürzlich in den Grafenstand erhobenen Kammerherrn Kaiserling,e inen Jüngling von 18 1/2 Jahren die Aussicht übernommen habe.

In a letter of 27 May 1778 to his brother, Johann Michael (two years older than Christian), Kraus wrote:

My young count has become a soldier, leaving me already a month ago. I continue to live with my old Count Keyserling, however, where I have free room and board, am waited on, and live like a child in the house. [...] I will stay here for as long as I'm in Königsberg, even if I establish myself and become a Master or a Professor, I am permitted to stay. [Krause 1881, 79]

Mein iunge Graf ist Soldat geworden und hat mich schon vorigen Monat verlassen. Ich bin indessen noch immerfort bey meinem alten Graf Keyserling im Hause wo ich freye Station, Aufwartung, freye Tafel habe und wie ein Kind im Hause lebe. [...] So lang ich in Königsberg bleibe, werde ich nimmer aus dem Keyserlingschen Haus kommen, und auch selbst wenn ich mich etablire und Magister oder Professor werde, dürfte ich da wohnen bleiben.

Kreuschner, Johann Heinrich (1693-1730)

1706 (Jan 24): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1714: Magister (Jena).

1716 (Nov 17): AR.

1717?: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1720: Deacon in the Cathedral (Kneipfhof).

Born (22 Oct 1693) and died (5 Jan 1730) in Königsberg. Selle [1956, 131] claims he was the first to bring Christian Wolff’s philosophy to Königsberg, and that he had even visited Leibniz in Hannover. He taught as a docent from 1717-20, and then as a chaplain. [Sources: Arnoldt 1777, 54; Wotschke 1928, 20]

Kreutzfeld, Johann Gottlieb (1745-1784)

1762 (Sep 28): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1769 (Oct): Taught at the Altstadt Gymnasium.

1777 (SS): Full Prof. of Poetry (replaced Lindner).*

1779-84: 2nd Librarian, University Library (replaced C. D. Reusch).

Johann Gottlieb Kreutzfeld (also: Creutzfeld, Kreuzfeld), the son of a master tailor, was born 19 April 1745 in Königsberg, where he also died on 18 January 1784 of tuberculosis, not yet 39 years old. He taught poetry at the university in Königsberg alongside Immanuel Kant, having first attended his lectures at the university as a student (matriculating 28 September 1762, the same semester as J. G. Herder), then teaching at a local high school — the Altstadt Gymnasium — beginning October 1769. He was appointed full professor of poetry (replacing Lindner) in 1776, and began teaching with the 1777 summer semester; Kant quite likely had a hand in his being offered the position. Both Kraus [bio] and Wasianski [bio] served as student respondents at Kreutzfeld’s pro receptione disputation on Feb. 25, 1777, and Kant was among the disputants at his his pro loco disputation (25 February 1777) — his inaugural address for the Poetry chair; Kreutzfeld’s address as well as Kant’s response have been preserved [writings]

Kreutzfeld replaced C. D. Reusch as assistant librarian at the university library (in the castle) in 1779 — the same position held by Kant a decade earlier — and served in this capacity until his death. He was a friend of J. G. Hamann, wrote book reviews for the Königsberger gelehrter Zeitung, collected Lithuanian folk songs (or Dainos), and published poems in Voss's Musenalmanach, in Baczko's Preußische Tempe (Königsberg: J. J. Kanter, 1780-82), in the Preussischen Blumenlesen (Königsberg: Hartung, 1781-82), and in Gesängen für das schöne Geschlecht, a publication of his close friend J. F. Reichardt, who set several of these poems to music. [Sources: Goldbeck 1781-83, ii.60; Goldbeck 1782, 85; Metzger 1804, 52; Pisanski 1886, 493, 651, 675; Jöcher/Adelung 1810, vol. 3, col. 875; APB; Rehberg 1942, 113-17] [last update: 15 May 2010]

Select Publications:

De principiis fictionum generalioribus (Königsberg: Hartung, 1777). This, and Kant's Latin remarks, are printed in Kants gesammelte Schriften, vol. 15 (Berlin, 1913), pp. 903-35.

Dem Gedächtniß des hohen Königl. Preußischen Krönungsfestes weihete den 18. Jänner 1777 im Namen der Königsbergischen Universität zur Bezeugung ihrer Pflicht und Unterthänigkeit folgendes Gedicht (Königsberg: Hartung, 1777).

"Servare hominem quam gignere malo" in Drei Preisschriften über die Frage: Welches sind die besten ausführbarsten Mittel dem Kindermorde abzuhelfen, ohne die Unzucht zu begünstigen? (Mannheim: Schwan, 1784).

Eine Meynung über den alten Adel der alten Preussen, nebst einigen urkundlichen Beylagen (Königsberg, 1784).

Krug, Wilhelm Traugott (1770-1842)

1805-9: Full Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics.

See Leipzig.

Kuhn, Johann Bernhard (1710-17??)

1727 (Apr 10): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1734 (Jul 15): Magister (Jena).

1734 (Jul 18): AR.

1735: Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1740: Pastor at Salfeld.

1747-48: Pastor at Friedland.

Born (Oct 10) in Königsberg.

Kunstmann, Matthaeus (1650-1726)

1675 (Apr 17): Matriculation (Königsberg).

Lecturer in Philosophy.

Kypke, Georg David (1724-1779)

1738 (Apr 15): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1744 (Mar 14): Magister (Halle).

1746 (May 14): AR, Assoc. Prof. of Oriental Languages.* (PR: 8/19)

1755: Full Prof. of Oriental Languages; inspector of the Königsberg synagogue (until 1777).*

Georg David Kypke was born (23 Oct 1724)[1] in Neukirchen (Pomerania), and died (28 May 1779) in Königsberg. He was the son of a pastor, and nephew to Johann David Kypke (see below). Born the same year as Kant, they also both attended the Collegium Fridericianum in Königsberg, then at the university (there is record of Kypke publicly defending, under the physics professor Teske, an essay on the incomprehensibility of God’s infinite intellect on 2 July 1743).

Kypke also studied at Halle under Siegmund Jacob Baumgarten [bio], who instilled in him a strong interest in English. He was friends with J. S. Semler [bio], who was also studying under Baumgarten, and lived in the house of Kriegsrath Michaelis. After receiving his Magister at Halle, he returned to Könïgsberg, lectured for only two years before receiving an appointment as associate professor of Oriental languages (1746), and also offered courses on English. In 1755, the year when Kant returned to Königsberg as a lecturer, Kypke was promoted to full professor, and also published an abridged translation of Locke’s Of the Conduct of the Human Understanding (Hartung, 1755).[2] 

Kant lived with Kypke during these early years, although this relationship appears to have weakened with time, perhaps as Kypke became more involved with his garden, out of which he sold vegetables. Wannowski mentions Kypke as one of Kant's close friends during his early years teaching at the university, along with Funk, the professor of law [Reicke 1860, 39]. Schlegel also notes that Kypke used Baumeister’s textbook on logic and metaphysics — a text initially used by Kant, but eventually abandoned as too simplistic — for 30 years [1790, 223n]. A longer biography of Kypke is also available. [Sources: Arnoldt 1746, ii.426; Semler 1781, 78; Pisanski 1886, 637; APB] [last update: 31 Jul 2013]


[1] Malter [1990, 44] gives his birth date as 1723.

[2] This is a selection of Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Kypke’s book is 176pp octavo.

Kypke, Johann David (1692-1758)

1712 (Aug 30): Matriculation (Königsberg).

1718-24: Teacher at the Collegium Fridericianum.

1723 (Apr 2): Magister; Lecturer in Philosophy.*

1725/26 (WS): Assoc. Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics.

1727: Full Prof. of Logic and Metaphysics.* (PL: Oct 16)

1732: 6th Full Prof. of Theology.

1733 (Jul 23): Dr. of Theology (Königsberg); 5th Full Prof. of Theology.

1745: 4th Full Prof. of Theology.

Also: Kipke. Born (Feb 8) in Neukirchen (Pomerania), died (Dec 10) in Königsberg. He was the son of a pastor. Attended the gymnasium in Stettin. In 1730 he married a sister of Professor Arnoldt. Kant applied for this chair at Kypke’s death, but the Academic Senate gave the post to Johann Friedrich Buck, who had served as a Lecturer longer than Kant.[1] He was rector four times, and in 1753 served as dean of both the philosophy and the theology faculties. A longer biography of Kypke is also available. [Sources: Hagelgans 1737; Arnoldt 1746, ii.190,192-3, 433; Arnoldt 1769, 17; Goldbeck 1782, 210; Bornhak 1900, 112; APB] [2]


[1] Six professors applied for Kypke’s position: Bock, Flottwell, Hahn, Kant, Thiesen, and Watson. Only Bock and Kant’s names were forwarded to St. Petersburg for final selection. Flottwell was a full prof. of rhetoric, Hahn a full prof. of oriental languages, and Gottfried Thiesen a full prof. of medicine (1730-75).

[2] The Academy edition mistakenly lists J. D. Kypke as the father of G. D. Kypke (instead of as his uncle).


[Index of Königsberg Professors]