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Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911) inaugurated the Academy edition (the Akademie Ausgabe) of Kant’s writings — Kant’s Gesammelte Schriften (1900- ) — in 1894-95, and served as its first editor.  This was understood to be a major undertaking, and was to serve as a model for other such editions.  The volumes are grouped into four sections:

I. Kant’s published writings (vols. 1-9),

II. Kant’s correspondence (vols. 10-13),

III. Kant’s literary remains, or Nachlaß (vols. 14-23), and

IV. student notes from Kant’s lectures (vols. 24-29). 

The first three sections (vols. 1-23) are now available online, courtesy of the IKP at the University of Bonn.

After several hiatuses, this project is nearing completion, with vol. 25 (Lectures on Anthropology) appearing in 1998, and vol. 26 (Lectures on Physical Geography) underway and scheduled for completion in the next few years. The history of this edition is rather checkered, however, with several poorly conceived and edited volumes. A few of these problems are briefly sketched below, but the primary intent here is to offer an easy overview of the edition, with special attention paid to the volumes devoted to Kant’s lectures. (On issues with the Academy edition, see especially Menzer [1957], Hinske [1990], Brandt/Stark [2000], Stark [2000b], and Gloyna, et al. [2008].)

The entire edition has been published by the Academy of Sciences located in Berlin, although with various changes in its name (Prussian Academy of Sciences, German Academy of Sciences of Berlin, Academy of Sciences of the DDR, and now the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences). The fourth section of the edition, devoted to the lecture notes, has been prepared by the Göttingen Academy of Sciences in collaboration with the Berlin academy.  Georg Reimer (Berlin) published the volumes until it was absorbed (along with several other publishers) by de Gruyter after WW I, who has since published the volumes.

The 2nd edition volumes.  Several of the early volumes were reissued in a second edition, beginning in 1910; these were prepared rather hastily, unfortunately introducing a number of errors absent in the 1st edition (the entire text was re-set, but was not adequately proofed by the editors). Page and line numbers remain the same between the editions (except for the volumes of correspondence), but the apparatus was expanded and updated. Consequently, the widely-used blue paperback student edition (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1968) is the best available, since it reproduces the 1st edition texts, but includes the 2nd edition editorial apparatus. (Unfortunately, its title-page indicates 1902 as the beginning-year of the Kant edition — rather than 1900 — an error now rather widespread in the literature.)

When listing the page-runs of the various writings, below, only those pages with original text are included (in other words, blank pages separating texts are ignored, as are title pages introducing the texts unless they are presenting the original publication title page).

I. Werke (vols. 1-9) [top]

Kant’s published writings.  General editor: Wilhelm Dilthey.  The editors of the individual volumes are listed separately, below.  This first division was to include all the material published by Kant, or published at his direction, arranged chronologically rather than by content.

Introductions by the editor(s), factual notes, and editorial notes (listing variant readings, changes to the text, etc.) are collected at the ends of the volumes.

One work included in this section that probably belongs elsewhere:

• The Latin treatise De igne (On Fire; Ak. 1:371-84) [writings] was not published until 1839, and as such belongs more properly with the Nachlaß in section three. 

Work not included in this section, that probably should be:

• “On the Organ of the Soul” (Ak. 12:30-5) [writings], currently included with the Briefwechsel, was first published in Soemmerring [1796].

• “On the Propensity to Fanaticism and the Means to Oppose it” (Ak. 11:141-43) [writings], currently included with the Briefwechsel, was first published in Borowski [1790].

• “On the Adventurer Jan Pawlikowicz Zdomozyrskich Komarnicki” (Ak. 2:489) [writings], printed in the Academy edition as part of the editorial apparatus for the related text “Maladies of the Head” [writings], was first published in 1764.


1: Pre-Critical Writings I, 1747-56. (11902, 21910), xxi, 585 pp. [top]

Introduction to the first division (Werke) of the edition by Wilhem Dilthy: 507-17. Preface (by Dilthey): v-xv. Separate introductions by the various editors, factual notes, and editorial notes for each writing are grouped together at the end of the volume: 521-85. The editors responsible for the texts in this volume were Johannes Rahts and Kurd Lasswitz. The two editions have identical pagination.

Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces (Gedanken von der wahren Schätzung der lebendigen Kräfte und Beurtheilung der Beweise, deren sich Herr von Leibniz und andere Mechaniker in dieser Streitsache bedient haben, nebst einigen vorhergehenden Betrachtungen, welche die Kraft der Körper überhaupt betreffen, 1747; 1:3-181). Editor: Kurd Lasswitz. [writings]

• “Examination of the Question whether the Rotation of the Earth on its Axis, by which it Brings About the Alternation of Day and Night, has Undergone any Change Since its Origin, and How One Can be Certain of This, which was set by the Royal Academy of Sciences in Berlin as the Prize Question for the Current Year” (“Untersuchung der Frage, ob die Erde in ihrer Umdrehung um die Achse, wodurch sie die Abwechselung des Tages und der Nacht hervorbringt, einige Veränderung seit den ersten Zeiten ihres Ursprungs erlitten habe und woraus man sich ihrer versichern könne, welche von der Königl. Akademie der Wissenschaften zue Berlin zum Preise für das jetztlaufende Jahr aufgegeben worden,” 1754; 1:185-91). Editor: Johannes Rahts. [writings]

See a fragment to this in vol. 23.

• “The Question, Whether the Earth is Ageing, Considered From a Physical Point of View” (“Die Frage, ob die Erde veralte, physikalisch erwogen,” 1754; 1:195-213). Editor: Johannes Rahts. [writings]

Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens, or Essay on the Constitution and Mechanical Origin of the Entire Universe, treated in accordance with Newtonian Principles (Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie des Himmels oder Versuch von der Verfassung und dem mechanischen Ursprunge des ganzen Weltgebäudes, nach Newtonischen Grundsätzen abgehandelt, 1755; 1:217-368). Editor: Johannes Rahts. [writings]

See Kant’s sketch of a preface in vol. 23.

• “Concise Outline of Some Reflections on Fire [De igne]” (Meditationum quarundam de igne succincta delineatio, 1755; 1:371-84). Editor: Kurd Lasswitz. [writings]

This Latin essay, Kant’s Magisterarbeit, was first published in Rosenkranz/Schubert (1839).

• New Elucidation of the First Principles of Metaphysical Cognition [Nova dilucidatio] (Principiorum primorum cognitionis metaphysicae nova dilucidatio, 1755; 1:387-416). Editor: Kurd Lasswitz. [writings]

• “On the Causes of the Earthquakes, on the Occasion of the Calamity that befell the Western Countries of Europe towards the End of Last Year“ (“Von den Ursachen der Erderschütterungen bei Gelegenheit des Unglücks, welches die westliche Länder von Europa gegen das Ende des vorigen Jahres betroffen hat,” 1756; 1:419-27). Editor: Johannes Rahts. [writings]

• “History and Natural Description of the Most Noteworthy Occurrences of the Earthquake that Struck a Large Part of the Earth at the End of the Year 1755” (“Geschichte und Naturbeschreibung der merkwürdigsten Vorfälle des Erdbebens, welches an dem Ende des 1755sten Jahres einen großen Teil der Erde erschüttert hat,” 1756; 1:431-61). Editor: Johannes Rahts. [writings]

• “Continued Observations of the Terrestrial Convulsions that have been Perceived for Some Time” (“Fortgesetzte Betrachtung der seit einiger Zeit wahrgenommenen Erderschütterungen,” 1756; 1:465-72). Editor: Johannes Rahts. [writings]

• “The Employment in Natural Philosophy of Metaphysics combined with Geometry, of which Sample One Contains the Physical Monadology” (“Metaphysicae cum geometria iunctae usus in philosophia naturali, cuius specimen I. continet monadologiam physicam,” 1756; 1:475-87). Editor: Kurd Lasswitz. [writings]

• “New Notes to Explain the Theory of the Winds, in which, at the same time, he Invites Attendance at his Lectures. Königsberg, the 25th of April, 1756” (“Neue Anmerkungen zur Erläuterung der Theorie der Winde, wodurch er zugleich zu seinen Vorlesungen einladet. Königsberg, den 25. April 1756”; 1:491-503). Editor: Johannes Rahts [writings].

This was a lecture announcement (April 25) for SS 1756.


2: Pre-Critical Writings II, 1757-77. (11905, 21912), viii, 525 pp. [top]

Separate introductions by the various editors, factual notes, and editorial notes for each writing are grouped together at the end of the volume: 455-525. The editors responsible for the texts in this volume were Paul Gedan, Kurd Lasswitz, Paul Menzer, Max Köhler (or Frischeisen-Köhler), and Erich Adickes. The 2nd edition includes the “Review of Silberschlag,” but pagination identical to the 1st edition was maintained by assigning the new text to pages 272d-e. This same review is also included at Ak. 8:449-50.

• “Outline and Announcement of a Course of Lectures on Physical Geography, to which is Appended a Brief Observation on the Question, Whether the West Winds in our Regions are Humid because they pass over a Large Sea.” (“Entwurf und Ankündigung eines Collegii der physischen Geographie nebst dem Anhange einer kurzen Betrachtung über die Frage: Ob die Westwinde in unsern Gegenden darum feucht seien, weil sie über ein großes Meer streichen,” 1757; 2:3-12). Editor: Paul Gedan. [writings]

This was a lecture announcement for SS 1757.

• “New Theory of Motion and Rest, and the connected Consequences in the First Principles of the Natural Sciences, whereby he also announces his lectures for this semester, the 1st of April, 1758” (“Neuer Lehrbegriff der Bewegung und Ruhe und der damit verknüpften Folgerungen in den ersten Gründen der Naturwissenschaft, wordurch zugleich seine Vorlesungen in diesem halben Jahre angekündigt werden. Den 1sten April 1758”; 2:15-25). Editor: Kurd Lasswitz. [writings]

This was a lecture announcement for SS 1758.]

• “An Attempt at Some Reflections on Optimism by Immanuel Kant, whereby he also announces his lectures for the coming semester. 7th October 1759” (“Versuch einiger Betrachtungen über den Optimismus von M. Immanuel Kant, wodurch er zugleich seine Vorlesungen auf das bevorstehende halbe Jahr ankündigt. Den 7. October 1759”; 2: 29-35). Editor: Kurd Lasswitz. [writings]

This was a lecture announcement for WS 1759/60.

• “Thoughts on the Premature Death of Mr. Johann Friedrich von Funk” (“Gedanken bei dem frühzeitigen Ableben des hochwohlgebornen Herrn, Herrn Johann Friedrich von Funk, (etc.)” 1760; 2:39-44). Editor: Paul Menzer.[writings]

• “The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures Demonstrated by M. Immanuel Kant” (“Die falsche Spitzfindigkeit der vier syllogistischen Figuren erwiesen von M. Immanuel Kant,” 1762; 2:47-61). Editor: Kurd Lasswitz. Introduction: Paul Menzer. [writings]

This was a lecture announcement for WS 1762/63.

• The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God (Der einzig mögliche Beweisgrund zu einer Demonstration des Daseyns Gottes, 1763; 2:65-163). Editor: Paul Menzer. [writings]

• “Attempt to Introduce the Concept of Negative Magnitudes into Philosophy” (“Versuch den Begriff der negativen Grössen in die Weltweisheit einzuführen,” 1763; 2:167-204). Editor: Kurd Lasswitz. [writings]

• Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and the Sublime (Beobachtungen über das Gefühl des Schönen und Erhabenen, 1764; 2:207-56). Editor: Paul Menzer. [writings]

• “Essay on the Maladies of the Mind” (“Versuch über die Krankheiten des Kopfes,” 1764; 2:259-71). Editor: Max Köhler. [writings]

• “Review of Silberschlag’s Writing: Theory of the Fireball that Appeared on July 23, 1762” (Recension von Silberschlags Schrift: Theorie der am 23. Juli 1762 erschienenen Feuerkugel, 1764; 2:272d-e). Editor: Paul Menzer. [writings]

This text is included only in the 2nd edition (1912) of vol. 2, and in the 1st edition (1912) of vol. 8 (pp. 449-50).

• Inquiry concerning the Distinctness of the Principles of Natural Theology and Morality (Untersuchung über die Deutlichkeit der Grundsätze der natürlichen Theologie und der Moral, 1764; 2:275-301). Editor: Kurd Lasswitz. [writings]

• “Announcement of the Program of his Lectures for the Winter Semester 1765-1766” (“Nachricht von der Einrichtung seiner Vorlesungen in dem Winterhalbenjahre von 1765-1766, 1765; 2:305-13). Editor: Kurd Lasswitz. [writings]

This was a lecture announcement for WS 1765/66.

• Dreams of a Spirit-Seer Elucidated by Dreams of Metaphysics (Träume eines Geistersehers, erläutert durch Träume der Metaphysik, 1766; 2:317-73). Editor: Paul Menzer. [writings]

• “Concerning the Ultimate Ground of the Differentiation of Directions in Space” (“Von dem ersten Grunde des Unterschiedes der Gegenden im Raume,” 1768; 2:377-83). Editor: Kurd Lasswitz. [writings]

• On the Form and Principles of the Sensible and the Intelligible World [Inaugural Dissertation] (De mundi sensibilis atque intelligibilis forma et principiis, 1770; 2:387-419). Editor: Erich Adickes. [writings]

• “Review of Moscati’s Book: On the Essential Bodily Difference in the Structure of Animals and Human Beings” (“Recension von Moscatis Schrift: Von dem körperlichen wesentlichen Unterschiede zwischen der Structur der Thiere und Menschen,” 1771; 2:423-25). Editor: Kurd Lasswitz. [writings]

• “On the Different Races of Human Beings, and to announce the lectures on physical geography for the summer semester 1775” (“Von den verschiedenen Racen der Menschen, zur Ankündigung der Vorlesungen der physischen Geographie im Sommerhalbenjahre 1775”; 2:429-43). Editor: Max Frischeisen-Köhler. [writings]

This was a lecture announcement for SS 1775, and the last that we have of Kant’s.

• “Essays Regarding the Philanthropinum” (“Aufsätze, das Philanthropin betreffend,” 1776-77; 2:447-52). Editor: Paul Menzer. [writings]


3: Critique of Pure Reason (B-ed.) (11904, 21911), ix, 594 pp. [top]

Edited by Benno Erdmann. Erdmann’s introduction: 555-8.

• Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, 21787; 3:2-552). [writings]


4: Critique of Pure Reason (A-ed.)/Prolegomena/etc. (11903, 21911), viii, 652 pp. [top]

Editorial introductions are collected at the end of the volume with the notes (569-652), and are listed below after the editor’s name.

• Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, 11781; 4:5-252). Edited by Benno Erdmann (569-87). [writings]

See Kant’s marginalia to his copy in vol. 23.

• Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics that will be able to present itself as a Science (Prolegomena zu einer jeden künftigen Metaphysik, die als Wissenschaft wird auftreten können, 1783; 4:255-383). Edited by Benno Erdmann (598-607). [writings]

See Kant’s draft in vol. 23.

• Groundwork to a Metaphysics of Morals (Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten, 1785; 4:387-463). Edited by Paul Menzer (623-30). [writings]

• Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft, 1786; 4:467-565). Edited by Alois Höfler (635-8). [writings]


5: Critique of Practical Reason/Critique of Judgment (11908, 21913), xi, 544 pp. [top]

Editorial introductions are collected at the end of the volume with the notes (489-544), and are listed below after the editor’s name.

• Critique of Practical Reason (Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, 1788; 5:3-163). Edited by Paul Natorp (489-98). [writings]

See Kant’s draft in vol. 23.

• Critique of the Power of Judgment (Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790; 5:167-485). Edited by Wilhelm Windelband (512-27). [writings]


6: Religion/Metaphysics of Morals (11907, 21914), x, 549 pp. [top]

Editorial introductions are collected at the end of the volume with the notes (497-549), and are listed below after the editor’s name.

• Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen Vernunft, 1793; 6:3-202). Edited by Georg Wobbermin (497-50). [writings]

See Kant’s drafts in vol. 23.

• Metaphysics of Morals (Die Metaphysik der Sitten, 1797; 6:205-493). Edited by Paul Natorp (517-20). [writings]

• The Doctrine of Right (Metaphysiche Anfangsgründe der Rechtslehre, 1797; 6:205-355).

• Explanatory Notes on the Metaphysical Foundations of the Doctrine of Right (Erläuternder Bemerkungen zu den metaphysischen Anfangsgründen der Rechtslehre, 1798; 6:356-72).

• The Doctrine of Virtue (Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Tugendlehre, 1797; 6:373-493).

See Kant’s drafts in vol. 23.


7: Conflict of the Faculties/Anthropology (11907, 21917), ix, 415. [top]

Editorial introductions are collected at the end of the volume with the notes (337-415), and are listed below after the editor’s name.

• The Conflict of the Faculties (Der Streit der Fakultäten, 1798; 7:5-116). Edited by Karl Vorländer (337-43). [writings]

See Kant’s drafts in vol. 23.

• Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View (Anthropologie in pragmatischer Hinsicht, 1798; 7:119-333). Edited by Oswald Külpe (354-56). [writings]

• Additions from H (Kant’s handwritten draft from which the Anthropology was published): pp. 393-413.


8: [Essays after 1781] (11912, 21923), viii, 531 pp. [top]

Individual introductions and notes: 463-531. The editors responsible for the texts in this volume were Heinrich Maier, Max Frischeisen-Köhler, and Paul Menzer.

• “A Notice of Lambert’s Correspondence” (“Anzeige des Lambert’schen Briefweschsels,” 1782; 8:3-4). Edited by Paul Menzer. [writings]

• “Report to Physicians” (“Nachricht an Ärzte,” 1782; 8:6-8). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

• “Review of Johann Heinrich Schulz’s Essay on the Moral Instruction of all Humans, regardless of their Religion” (“Rezension von [Johann Heinrich] Schulz’s Versuch einer Anleitung zur Sittenlehre für alle Menschen, ohne Unterschied der Religion, nebst einem Anhang von den Todesstrafen,” 1783; 8:10-14). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

• “Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Purpose” (“Idee zu einer allgemeinen Geschichte in weltbürgerlicher Absicht,” 1784; 8:17-31). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

• “Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?” (“Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklärung?,” 1784; 8:35-42). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

• “Review of J. G. Herder’s Ideas on the Philosophy of the History of Humanity” (“Recensionen von J. G. Herders Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit,” 1785; 8:45-66). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

• “On the Volcanoes on the Moon” (“Über die Vulkane im Monde,” 1785; 8:69-76). Edited by Max Frischeisen-Köhler. [writings]

• “Of the Injustice of Counterfeiting Books” (“Von der Unrechtmäßigkeit des Büchernachdrucks,” 1785; 8:79-87). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

• “Determination of the Concept of a Human Race” (“Bestimmung des Begriffs einer Menschenrace,” 1785; 8:91-106). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

• “Conjectural Beginning of Human History” (“Muthmaßlicher Anfang der Menschengeschichte,” 1786; 8:109-23). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

• “Review of Gottlieb Hufeland’s Essay on the Principles of Natural Law” (“Recension von Gottlieb Hufeland’s Versuch über den Grundsatz des Naturrechts,” 1786; 8:127-30). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

• “What Is Orientation in Thinking?” (“Was heißt: Sich im Denken orientiren?,” 1786; 8:133-47). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

• “Some Remarks on L. H. Jakob’s Examination of Mendelssohn’s Morgenstunden” (“Einige Bemerkungen zu Ludwig Heinrich Jakob’s Prüfung der Mendelssohn’schen Morgenstunden,” 1786; 8:151-55). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

• “On the Use of Teleological Principles in Philosophy” (“Über den Gebrauch teleologischer Principien in der Philosophie,” 1788; 8:159-84). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

See Kant’s draft in vol. 23.

• “On a Discovery, according to which any new Critique of Pure Reason is made Superfluous through an Older” [Essay against Eberhard] (“Über eine Entdeckung, nach der alle neue Kritik der reinen Vernunft durch eine ältere entbehrlich gemacht werden soll,” 1790; 8:187-251). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

• “On the Failure of all Philosophical Attempts in Theodicy” (“Über das Misslingen aller philosophischen Versuche in der Theodicee,” 1791; 8:255-71). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

See Kant’s draft in vol. 23.

• “On the Common Saying: ‘This may be true in theory, but it does not apply in practice’” (“Über den Gemeinspruch: Das mag in der Theorie richtig sein, taugt aber nicht für die Praxis,” 1793; 8:275-313). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

See Kant’s drafts in vol. 23.

• “On the Influence of the Moon on the Weather” (“Etwas über den Einfluß des Mondes auf die Witterung,” 1794; 8:317-24). Edited by Max Frischeisen-Köhler [writings]

See Kant’s drafts in vol. 23.

• “The End of All Things” (“Das Ende aller Dinge,” 1794; 8:327-39). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

See Kant’s draft in vol. 23.

• “Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch” (“Zum ewigen Frieden. Ein philosophischer Entwurf,” 1795; 8:343-86). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

See Kant’s drafts in vol. 23.

• “On a New Superior Tone in Philosophy” (“Von einem neuerdings erhobenen vornehmen Ton in der Philosophie,” 1796; 8:389-406). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

See Kant’s draft in vol. 23.

• “Settlement of a Mathematical Dispute Founded on Misunderstanding” (“Ausgleichung eines auf Mißverstand beruhenden mathematischen Streits,” 1796; 8:409-10). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

See Kant’s drafts in vol. 23.

• “Announcement of the Near Conclusion of a Treaty for Eternal Peace in Philosophy” (“Verkündigung des nahen Abschlusses eines Tractats zum ewigen Frieden in der Philosophie,” 1796; 8:413-22). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

• “On a Supposed Right to Lie from Altruistic Motives” (“Über ein vermeintes Recht aus Menschliebe zu lügen,” 1797; 8: 425-30). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

• “On the Making of Books” (“Über die Buchmacherei,” 1798; 8:433-38). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

• “Preface to Reinhold Bernhard Jachmann’s Examination of the Kantian Philosophy of Religion” (“Vorrede zu Reinhold Bernhard Jachmanns Prüfung der Kantischen Religionsphilosophie,” 1800; 8:441). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

See Kant’s draft in vol. 23.

• “Afterword to Christian Gottlieb Mielcke’s Lithauanian-German and German-Lithuanian Dictionary” (“Nachschrift zu Christian Gottlieb Mielckes Littauisch- deutschem und deutsch-littauischem Wörterbuch,” 1800; 8:445). Edited by Heinrich Maier. [writings]

• “Review of Silberschlag’s Writing: Theory of the Fireball that Appeared on July 23, 1762” (Recension von Silberschlags Schrift: Theorie der am 23. Juli 1762 erschienenen Feuerkugel, 1764; 8:449-50). Editor: Paul Menzer. [writings]

This text also appeared in the 2nd edition (1912) of vol. 2 (pp. 272d-e).

• Appendix: “Kraus’s Review of Ulrich’s Eleutheriologie” (“Kraus’ Recension von Ulrich’s Eleutheriologie,” 1788; 8:453-60). Edited by Paul Menzer. [writings]

See Kant’s draft in vol. 23.


9: Logic/Physical Geography/Education (1923), vii, 572 pp. [top]

Unlike the other work published during Kant’s lifetime, these three works were edited by two of Kant’s colleagues (Jäsche [bio] and Rink [bio]), and so include editorial prefaces from the original publication.  The editorial introductions for the Academy edition are collected at the end of the volume, and are listed below after their editor’s name. No preface to the volume.

• Logic, edited by Gottlob Benjamin Jäsche (1800; 9:1-150). Edited by Max Heinze (503-5). [writings]

• Physical Geography, “edited and in part revised at the author’s request, from his own manuscript, by Fr. Th. Rink” (1802; 9:151-436). Edited by Paul Gedan (509-13). [writings]

• Education, edited by Friedrich Theodor Rink (1803; 9:439-99). Edited by Paul Natorp (569-70). [writings]

II. Briefwechsel (vols. 10-13) [top]

Kant’s correspondence, with an extensive index to this in vol. 13.  Editor: Rudolf Reicke (1825-1905).

After Reicke’s death, work on the notes (in vol. 13) was continued by his longtime co-worker, Rose Berger, as well as Johannes Reicke and Paul Menzer.  Because new-found correspondence was added in the 2nd edition, the pagination differs between these editions, so attention must be paid in older works as to which edition is being cited.  Still further correspondence was included in vol. 23 (pp. 491-500; see below).


10: Correspondence I (11900), xix, 532 pp. (21922), xx, 559 pp. [top]

Reicke’s preface to the 1st ed: v; unsigned preface to 2nd ed: v-vi.


11: Correspondence II (11900), xv, 517 pp. (21922), xv, 536 pp. [top]


12: Correspondence III + varia (11902), xvii, 466 pp. (21922), xvi, 442 pp. [top]

• Correspondence (12:1-356).

• [Included among the correspondence] “On the Organ of the Soul” (“Aus Sömmering über das Organ der Seele,” (1796;212:30-5) [writings]. This text was sent in a letter to Sömmering, Aug. 10, 1795, and published in Samuel Thomas Sömmering, Über das Organ der Seele, nebst einen Schreiben von Imm. Kant (Königsberg: Friedrich Nicolovius, 1796).

• Public declarations (12:359-72).

• “Illegitimate Edition” (12:359) [writings].

• “Fichte” (12:359-60) [writings].

• “Bookdealers” (12:360) [writings].

• “Hippel’s Authorship” (12:360-61) [writings].

• “Schlettwein” (12:367-68) [writings].

• “Against Fichte” (12:370-71) [writings].

• “Against Vollmer” (12:372) [writings].

• Handwritten explanations and wills (12:375-92).

• Memorial verses for deceased colleagues (12:395-7).

• Poems dedicated to Kant (12:401-12).

• Stammbuchblätter (12:415-18) [see also 23:501].

• Official correspondence (selected) (12:421-42).


13: Correspondence Index (1922), xxxi, 699 pp. [top]

Introduction to the second division (Briefwechsel), by Rose Burger and Paul Menzer: ix-xxvi. Notes to volumes 10-12 (1-596), one additional letter (599-600), index (603-99). The index includes brief biographical information.

III. Handschriftlicher Nachlaß (vols. 14-23) [top]

Kant’s unpublished notes and reflections, including annotations to his textbooks.  Editors: Erich Adickes (vols. 14-18); Erich Adickes & Friedrich Berger (vol. 19; Adickes died before completion of the volume; Berger was his assistant); Gerhard Lehmann (vols. 20, 23); and Artur Buchenau & Gerhard Lehmann (vols. 21-22).  Introduction to the third division (14:xviii-lxii).

Adickes gives an account of the Reflections in his General Introduction to the Nachlaß (Ak. 14. xvii-lxii, see esp. liv-lxii). Earlier published collections of Kant’s reflections can be found in Rosenkranz/Schubert [1838-42], Erdmann [1882, 1884], and Reicke [1889, 1895, 1899]. The Academy edition draws on these earlier publications as well as additional material, and renumbers them all from Refl. #1 to #8112. What follows are a few essentials for getting started with the Reflections.

Adickes’s Headings

Every reflection has a heading that identifies it, dates it, and locates it. As an example, consider Refl. 4298 (found on p. 499 of vol. 17 — the first of two volumes dedicated to the reflections on metaphysics). The heading reads: 4298. µ? (υ2?) M 6. E II 1095. Neben M § 17.

4298: The number assigned by Adickes to the reflection for the purposes of the Academy edition, and what is now the standard number for identifying the reflection.

µ? (υ2?): These Greek letters (mu, upsilon) refer to the 33 distinct Schriftphasen (discussed below, and listed here) that Adickes was able to discern in Kant’s writings. Some of these overlap. ‘µ’ indicates “around 1770-71” while “υ2” indicates around 1776-78. The added question-mark indicates uncertainty on Adickes’ part, and the parenthesis around the latter means that the µ-dating is more probable than the υ2-dating.

M 6: Page 6 of the 4th edition of Baumgarten’s Metaphysica. Note that the page numbers to the 4th edition of Baumgarten are inserted into the reprinted Baumgarten text with square brackets, e.g., [6]. Kant’s copy of Baumgarten’s Metaphysica was bound with interleaved blank sheets, providing an entire page for writing notes opposite each page of printed text. Had the reflection been written on the inserted page facing p. 6, then the page number would have been given as M 6'.

E II 1095.: This reflection was numbered “1095” in Erdmann, vol. 2.

Neben M § 17: The reflection is written next to §17 of Kant’s copy of Baumgarten’s Metaphysica.

Compare this with Refl. 3703, which includes in its heading the following: 3704. α1. L Bl. D 32. S. I-IV. R I 295-299.  The new items given in this heading include:

L Bl.: Loses Blatt or "loose sheet"; this reflection was written on a separate sheet of paper, rather than in the Baumgarten text.

D 32: Manuscript 32 of Convolut D.  Schubert had sorted the collection of Kant’s Nachlaß stored at the Königlichen und Universitäts-Bibliothek zu Königsberg into thirteen folders or Convoluten, lettered A through N (omitting I).  Reicke retained these designations when he published the Reflections in his three volumes, and Adickes normally gives the folder-letter and manuscript number in the heading.

S. I-IV.: Seiten or "pages" 1 through 4.

R I 295-299: This reflection was printed in Reicke, vol. 1, pp. 295-99.

Adickes’s Abbreviations

A. M. = Altpreussische Monatsschrift [glossary].

B = Kant’s own 1st edition copy of the Beobachtungen über das Gefühl des Schönen und Erhabenen [writings].

Kant’s remarks written in his interleaved copy can be found at Ak. 20: 3-181, and in the more accurate edition by Rischmüller [1991].

E I / E II = Benno Erdmann, Reflexionen Kants zur kritischen Philosophie. Aus Kants handschriftlichen Aufzeichnungen.

Vol. 1: Reflexionen Kants zur Anthropologie (Leipzig: Fues, 1882).

Vol. 2: Reflexionen Kants zur Kritik der Reinen Vernunft (Leipzig: Fues, 1884).

Erdmann’s edition of the reflections, which he dated based on internal textual references only, as opposed to the material indices (ink color, placement on the page, and handwriting) that Adickes also used (Adickes discusses all this in his preface to Ak. 17).

g- and s-superscript = A superscripted ‘g’ or ‘s’ beginning a text in parentheses indicates the text was inserted by Kant, either at the same time as the reflection (g =gegenwartig) or at a later date (s =später).  All other parentheses stem from Kant.

Hb. = Kant’s Sämmtliche Werke, edited by Gustav Hartenstein, 2nd ed., 8 vols. (Leipzig: Leopold Voss, 1867-68).

Hg. = Herausgeber (= editor).

J = Kant’s copy of Achenwall, Juris naturalis inusum auditorum, 2nd part, 5th ed. (Göttingen: Bossiegel, 1763), xxxii, 222 pp.

Kant used this textbook in his natural law lectures [see]. Kant’s annotations are printed at Ak. 19: 325-422; his copy was presumably destroyed during WW II.

Ki = Kant, Sämmtliche Werke, edited by Julius Hermann von Kirchmann, 10 vols. (Heidelberg: Weiss, 1870-91).

L = Kant’s copy of Meier, Auszug aus der Vernunftlehre (Halle: Johann Justinus Gebauer, 1752), 155 pp.

Kant used this textbook in his logic lectures [see]. Kant’s copy of the 1752 1st edition is housed at the University Library at Dorpat/Tartu. His annotations are printed in Ak. 16 (nearly all of the Logic reflections come from the copy of Meier).

L Bl. = Loses Blatt (= loose sheet; i.e., a reflection that is not written in some printed book or pamphlet).

M = Kant’s copy of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, Metaphysica, 4th ed. (Halle: Carl Hermann Hemmerde, 1757), liii, 432 pp.

Kant used this textbook in his metaphysics lectures [see]. Kant’s copy of the 4th edition is housed at the University Library at Tartu; Kant’s annotations are printed at Ak. 15: 5-54 and 17: 5-226. Adickes [1926, vii] describes this volume as being 11.5 cm x 18 cm, and 4 cm thick. Both this and Kant’s 3rd edition copy were bound with interleaved blank pages, upon which Kant wrote comments (as well as in the margins of the printed pages).

When a reflection is written in Kant’s copy of the Metaphysica, Adickes always gives the page number, indicating whether it is written on one of the printed pages (e.g., M 182), or on one of the blank pages that Kant had interleaved into the book when it was bound (e.g., M 182' is the blank page facing p. 182 of Baumgarten).

Ms. = manuscript.

Pr = Kant’s copy of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, Initia philosophiae practicae primae acroamatice, 3rd ed. (Halle, 1760).

Kant used this textbook in his moral philosophy lectures [see]. Kant’s annotations are printed at Ak. 19:7-91; his copy was presumably destroyed during WW II. It was not interleaved with blank pages.

R I / R II / R III = Rudolph Reicke, Lose Blätter aus Kants Nachlass, 3 vols. (Königsberg: Ferdinand Beyer, 1889, 1895, 1898).

Originally published in the Altpreussischen Monatsschrift, from the years 1889, 1895, and 1898.

R.-Sch. = Kant, Sämmtliche Werke, edited by Karl Rosenkranz and Friedrich Wilhelm Schubert, 12 vols. (Leipzig: Voss, 1838-42).

R V = Kant’s copy of his Kritik der reinen Vernunft, 1st ed. (Riga: 1781).

Kant’s annotations are printed at Ak. 23:17-50. Kant’s copy — formerly housed in the Staats- und Universitätsbliothek in Königsberg — was presumably destroyed during WW II.

S. I-IV = Pages (Seiten) 1-4.

Th = Kant’s copy of Eberhard, Vorbereitung zur näturlichen Theologie zum Gebrauch akademischer Vorlesungen (Halle, 1781), 107 pp.

Kant used this textbook in his natural theology lectures [see]. Kant’s annotations are printed at Ak. 19:325-422; his copy was presumably destroyed during WW II.

Adickes’s Dating

Adickes developed a dating system for these reflections that divides them into thirty-three temporal strata, some of which overlap, leaving twenty-two distinct periods (see 14:xxxvi-xliii).  Each period is assigned a Greek-letter, and some of these are subscripted.  A card with a key to this system used to be published along with the volumes, which is handy when working through the reflections.

Below is a rough table indicating Adickes’s periods, followed by the table of lectures found on the introductory page of the Kant’s Lectures section.  As noted there, the available lecture notes are indicated with either an ‘N’ or an ‘Ñ’; an ‘N’ indicates we are reasonably certain that the notes stem from this semester, while an ‘Ñ’ (or N-tilde) is to be seen as a placeholder for notes stemming from roughly this period.  [N.B.: Holding your cursor over the ‘N’ and ‘Ñ’ should cause the names of the relevant notes to appear.]

 
Semester
1750s 1760s 1770s 1780s 1790s
0123456789 0123456789 0123456789 0123456789 0123456789
Adickes’s
Schriftphasen
             α1-α2 -β1-    --β2- ------γ------ ---ζ-- --θι--  κλ
         --δ-- ε -----η-----
-μ-ν  ξ  ---ρ--- --σ--   --χ--
        ο         --τ-- ---υφ--
----ψ1--- -ψ2- ----ψ3----ψ4 -ω1----ω2---ω3---ω4---ω5--
 
Semester
1750s 1760s 1770s 1780s 1790s  Total
6789 0123456789 0123456789 0123456789 0123456
logic ooooooooo oooooNoooooooo ooooo o Ñ N o o N o o o o Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ o o o o Ñ o o N N N o o 56
metap ooooooooo ooooNo Ñoo ooooooo o  ooo o o o o o o o Ñ  o o NN o o o o Ñ  Ñ Ñ N   N o 53
geogr  o ooo Ño   oo   NN oooooooooo N oooNo N NN o o o o ÑÑ N o o o o o N N N o o Ñ 49
anthr          N o o N o N o o  o N ÑN o o o Ñ Ñ  o N Ñ Ñ o o 24
physi oooooo o o oo  N  o   o  o  o             N     o   o   o   N    o   21
moral   o o  oo  o o   Ñ o ooo o o o oo   o Ñ o oo  o  o   Ñ   N   o   o        N 28
law                 o   o      o  o o   o o o   o   N   o   o     12
encyc                  o oo  oo o      o    Ñ   o    o   10
theol             o        N   Ñ  o   4
pedag                  o o      o     o   4
mathe oooooo oo oooo Ñoo       15
mech         o   o       2
miner      o     1
Semester Total: 6789 0123456789 0123456789 0123456789 0123456 279
455565266 44662335342445454556 54452423434334433333 43333334333334333322 2222222222222

14: Natural Sciences Nachlaß (11911), lxii, 637pp; (21925), lxii, 636 pp. [top] [mathematics lectures] [physics lectures] [physical geography lectures]

Preface to 1st ed.: v-xi. Preface to 2nd ed.: xi. Adickes’ introduction to the third division (Nachlaß): xxvii-lxii.

• Reflections on Mathematics (14:3-61). [Refl. 1-19]

• Reflections on Physics and Chemistry (14:65-537). [Refl. 20-32]

• Reflections on Physical Geography (14:541-635). [Refl. 33-110]


15: Anthropology Nachlaß (11913, 21923), xiv, 982 pp., edited by Erich Adickes. [top] [anthropology lectures]

Preface: v-x. Includes the paragraphs on empirical psychology (§§504-699) from A. G. Baumgarten’s Metaphysica (the text used for part of the course) as well as the many Reflections written by Kant in the margins and interleaved pages of his copy of Baumgarten.

• The “Empirical Psychology” sections (§§504-699) from Baumgarten’s Metaphysica, and Kant's adjoining notes (‘Erläuterungen’) (15:5-54). [Refl. 111-158]

This set of reflections are printed alongside Baumgarten’s text, and are referred to by Adickes as ‘Erläuterungen’, rather than as ‘Reflexionen’, although they all belong to the same numbering-sequence.  These ‘Erläuterungen’ were those entries in Kant’s copy of the Metaphysica that seem more like emendations to the text, and whose meaning depends on that particular passage in Baumgarten.  They stem from various compositional periods, although most are early.  A brief account of Kant’s copies of Baumgarten’s Metaphysica is given here.

• Reflections on Anthropology (15:57-654). [Refl. 158a-1481]

Some of these reflections are written in Kant’s copy of the Metaphysica, while others are on loose sheets.  They are arranged topically, rather than by date of composition.

Refl. 1319-1342 (15:580-84) reprint the fragments of the an-Minerva student notes.

• Notes for the Course on Anthropology from the 1770s (15:657-798). [Refl. 1482-1502]

These are Kant’s own notes that he used during his lectures on anthropology (and as such are to be distinguished from the notes that students took during these lectures).

• Notes for the Course on Anthropology from the 1780s (15:799-899). [Refl. 1502a-1524]

These are Kant’s own notes that he used during his lectures on anthropology (and as such are to be distinguished from the notes that students took during these lectures).

• Appendix: “Sketch of a Speech for a Disputation” (“Entwurf zu einer Opponenten-Rede,” February 28, 1777; 15:903-35) [writings].

The occasion for the above was Johann Gottlieb Kreutzfeld’s [bio] inaugural speech on his promotion to Full Professor of Poetry; his topic was on the principles of fiction. Kant’s speech is printed above Kreutzfeld’s, as Refl. 1525. [Refl. 1525]

• Appendix: “On Philosophers’ Medicine of the Body” (“De medicina corporis, quae philosophorum est,” 1788?; 15:939-53, Refl. 1526) [writings], and other reflections on medicine (15:954-80). [Refl. 1526-1561]


16: Logic Nachlaß (11914, 21924), xvi, 875 pp., edited by Erich Adickes. [top] [logic lectures]

Adickes’ preface: v-ix. Includes a reprint of the textbook Kant used in his logic lectures: Georg Friedrich Meier’s Auszug aus der Vernunftlehre (Halle 1752), as well as Kant’s notes written in the margins and interleaved pages of his copy of Meier.  These notes constitute the bulk of the reflections included here, and are arranged by the paragraph in Meier on which they are commenting. [Refl. 1562-3488]


17: Metaphysics Nachlaß I (1926), xviii, 745 pp., edited by Erich Adickes. [top] [metaphysics lectures]

Adickes’ preface: v-xiv.

• Reprint of Baumgarten’s 4th edition Metaphysica (1757) (except §§504-699, which are reprinted in vol. 15), and some of Kant’s adjoining notes (‘Erläuterungen’) (17:5-226; pp. 5-18, prefaces to 4th, 2nd, and 3rd editions; pp. 19-23, table of contents; pp. 206-26, Baumgarten’s index). [Refl. 3489-3702]

This set of reflections are printed alongside Baumgarten’s text, and are referred to by Adickes as ‘Erläuterungen’, rather than as ‘Reflexionen’, although they all belong to the same numbering-sequence.  These ‘Erläuterungen’ were those entries in Kant’s copy of the Metaphysica that seem more like emendations to the text, and whose meaning depends on that particular passage in Baumgarten.  They stem from various compositional periods, although most are early.  A brief account of Kant’s copies of Baumgarten’s Metaphysica is given here.

• Reflections on Metaphysics (annotations in the Baumgarten text, as well as “Löse Blätter”) (17:227-745). [Refl. 3703-4846]

These reflections are grouped by date of composition, using Adickes’s dating system of 33 periods, from α1 [1753-54] to τ [circa 1775-76]. The later reflections are printed in vol. 18, below.


18: Metaphysics Nachlaß II (1928), xxiii, 725 pp., edited by Erich Adickes. [top] [metaphysics lectures]

Adickes’ preface: v-vi.

• Reflections on Metaphysics (annotations in the Baumgarten text, as well as “Löse Blätter”) (18:5-488). [Refl. 4847-6205]

• From υ to φ [circa 1776-78] (18:5-217). [Refl. 4847-5551b]

• χ [1778-79] (18:218-66). [Refl. 5552-5635]

• ψ [1780-89] (18:267-488). [Refl. 5636-6205]

• Reprint of Eberhard’s Vorbereitung zur natürlichen Theologie (1781), along with Kant’s annotations (18:489-606). [Refl. 6206-6310]

• ω [1790-1804] (18:607-725). [Refl. 6311-6455]

These reflections are grouped by date of composition, using Adickes’s dating system of 33 periods. The earlier reflections on metaphysics are printed in vol. 17, above. Adickes includes the annotations to the Eberhard textbook here — rather than with the reflections on the philosophy of religion in vol. 19 — on the grounds that they are more closely related to metaphysics reflections.


19: Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Law, and Philosophy of Religion Nachlaß (1934), xiii, 660 pp., edited by Friedrich Berger. [top] [moral philosophy lectures] [natural law lectures] [natural theology lectures]

Berger’s preface: v-vii. Erich Adickes had worked on this volume prior to his death, and had completed most of the dating. As Berger notes in the preface: “The reflections were by and large already transcribed by Erich Adickes and also provisionally ordered chronologically” (Ak. 19: vi).

• Reprint of A. G. Baumgarten’s Initia philosophiae practicae primae, and Kant’s adjoining Reflections made in his own copy (19:7-91). [Refl. 6456-6576]

• Further Reflections on Moral Philosophy (19:92-317). [Refl. 6577-7322]

• Reprint of Gottfried Achenwall, Iuris naturalis Pars posterior, and Kant's adjoining notes (‘Erläuterungen’) made in his own copy (19:325-442). [Refl. 7323-7520]

• Further Reflections on Philosophy of Law (19:445-613). [Refl. 7521-8080]

These reflections, nearly all of which were written in the Achenwall textbook (which was not interleaved with blank pages), are grouped by date of composition, using Adickes’s dating system of 33 periods, beginning with ι (around 1766-68, pp. 445-50), κ (1769, pp. 451-80), ξ (c. 1772, pp. 481-87), ο (right after or the same time as ξ, pp. 488-93), ρ (um 1773-75, pp. 494-531), σ (c. 1775-77, pp. 532-36), υ/φ (both around 1776-78, pp. 537-53), ψ (c. 1780-89, pp. 554-601), and ω (1790-1804, pp. 602-13).

• Reflections on Philosophy of Religion (19:617-54) [Remarks written in Kant’s Bible: 651-4]. [Refl. 8081-8112]


20: [Drafts and Revisions] (1942), xii, 523 pp. Edited by Gerhard Lehmann. [top]

Lehmann’s preface: v-viii; Lehmann’s introduction: 471-89.  More detailed information is available at the Marburg Kantarchiv website.

• Kant’s remarks in his 1st edition copy of Beobachtungen über das Gefühl des Schönen und Erhabenen (20:3-192). [writings]

The book was lost during World War II, although photographs are still available in the university library at Göttingen. Marie Rischmüller prepared an improved edition of these notes: Immanuel Kant, Bemerkungen in den “Beobachtungen über das Gefühl des Schönen und Erhabenen,” published as vol. 3 in the Kant-Forschungen series edited by Reinhard Brandt and Werner Stark (Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, 1991).]

• Loose Sheets relevant to Beobachtungen über das Gefühl des Schönen und Erhabenen (20:183-92). [writings]

• “First Introduction to the Critique of Judgment” (“Erste Einleitung in die Kritik der Urtheilskraft”) (1790, unpubl.; 20:195-251). [writings]

• What Real Progress Has Metaphysics Made in Germany since the Time of Leibniz and Wolff? (Welches sind die wirklichen Fortschritte, die die Metaphysik seit Leibnizens und Wolfs Zeiten in Deutschland gemacht hat?, edited by Friedrich Theodor Rink, 1804; 20:257-332). [writings]

See Kant’s additions in vol. 23.

• Loose Sheets relevant to the “Progress” essay (20:335-51). [writings]

• Draft for the essay against Eberhard (20:355-78). [writings]

• On a review of Eberhard’s Magazine (20:381-423).

Johann Schultz’s published review of Eberhard’s Magazine is printed below Kant’s draft, and is also available online at the Bonn website.

• Sketches of a preface for the philosophy of religion (20:427-40).

• Remarks on the doctrine of law (20:445-67).

Friedrich Bouterwek reviewed Kant’s Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Rechtslehre in the Göttingsche Anzeigen von gelehrten Sachen, 28th issue (18 Feb 1797), upon which Kant commented.  Both the comments and Bouterwek’s review are printed here.


21: Opus postumum I (1936), xii, 645 pp., edited by Artur Buchenau & Gerhard Lehmann. [top]

Preface by Buchenau & Lehmann: v-vii.


22: Opus postumum II (1938), viii, 824 pp., edited by Artur Buchenau & Gerhard Lehmann. [top]

Introduction by Lehmann: 749-89. Index to the Opus postumum: 625-748.


23: [Drafts and Revisions] (1955), xv, 545 pp. Edited by Gerhard Lehmann. [top]

Lehmann’s preface: v. Lehmann’s introduction: 505-18.  More detailed information is available at the Marburg Kantarchiv website.

• Fragment on the Prize Essay Question of 1754 (23:3-7). [writings]

• Sketch of a preface to the Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens, 1755 (23:11-13). [writings]

• Marginalia to the Critique of Pure Reason, 1781 (23:17-50). [writings]

• Draft for the Prolegomena, 1783 (23:53-65). [writings]

• Draft for the Critique of Practical Reason, 1788 (23:69-71). [writings]

• Draft for “On the Use of Teleological Principles in Philosophy,” 1788 (23:75-6). [writings]

• Draft for the “Review of Ulrich,” 1788 (23:79-81). [writings]

• Draft for “On the Failure of all Philosophical Attempts in Theodicy,” 1791 (23:85). [writings]

• Drafts for Religion within the Bounds of Unaided Reason, 1793 (23:89-124). [writings]

• Drafts for “On the Common Saying: ‘This may be true in theory, but it does not apply in practice’,” 1793 (23:127-43). [writings]

• Drafts for “On the Influence of the Moon on the Weather,” 1794 (23:147-8). [writings]

• Draft for “The End of All Things,” 1794 (23:151-2). [writings]

• Drafts for “Perpetual Peace,” 1795 (23:155-92). [writings]

• Draft for “On a New Superior Tone in Philosophy,” 1796 (23:195). [writings]

• Drafts for “Settlement of a Mathematical Controversy which is Resting on a Misunderstanding,” 1796 (23:199-205). [writings]

• Drafts for Metaphysic of Morals, 1797 (23:211-419). [writings]

• Drafts for The Conflict of the Faculties, 1798 (23:423-64). [writings]

• Draft for “Preface to Reinhold Bernhard Jachmann’s Examination of the Kantian Philosophy of Religion,” 1800 (23:467-8). [writings]

• Additions to the “Progress of Metaphysics,” 1804 (23:471-5). [writings]

• Additions to the Opus Postumum (23:479-88) [see vols. 21-22].

• Additions to the Correspondence (23:491-500).

• Addition to the Stammbuch pages (23:501) [see 12:415-18].

IV. Vorlesungen (vols. 24-29) [top]

Student notes from Kant’s lectures: Anthropology [25 (1998)], Logic [24 (1966, 1966), 29 (1983)], Mathematics [29 (1980)], Metaphysics [28 (1968, 1970), 29 (1983)], Moral Philosophy [27 (1974, 1975), 29 (1980)], Natural Law [27 (1979)], Natural Theology [28 (1972), (1983)], Philosophical Encyclopedia [29 (1980)], Physical Geography [26], Physics [29 (1980)].  Editors: Gerhard Lehmann (vols. 24, 27-29), Reinhard Brandt & Werner Stark (vol. 25), Werner Stark (vol. 26).

Because the volumes to this last section have multiple parts (separate volumes), the parts of each volume will be listed separately by date of publication. Lehmann offers an introduction to this fourth section at 24:955-75, but see also the more extensive introduction to volume 25 by Brandt and Stark, much of which provides helpful background information for all of the lectures.

In the initial organization of the editorial staff for the Academy edition, Max Heinze was to serve as general editor of the fourth part (Vorlesungen), with the following special editors: Heinze (metaphysics, logic, and natural religion), Paul Gedan (physical geography), Oswald Külpe (anthropology), Paul Menzer (moral philosophy), and Rudolf Stammler (physics) [as reported in Kant-Studien, 1 (1897):150].

None of these men lived to see any of the volumes completed. Heinze died on 17 September 1909, and in the second edition of vol. 1 of the the Academy edition (1910; 1: xvii), it was reported that Paul Menzer would replace Heinze as general editor of the Vorlesungen, with the following special editors: Bruno Bauch, Paul Gedan, Paul Menzer, and Rudolf Stammler. From the minutes of the Kant Commission of the Academy (contract with Paul Menzer, 14 Oct 1909; contract with Bruno Bauch, 22 Feb. 1910), we learn that Bauch was to take Menzer’s place editing the moral philosophy lectures, since Menzer assumed Heinze’s sections; Külpe’s name was absent from the list, leaving open who would edit the anthropology lectures.


24: Logic (2 vols.; 1966): 1st half: pp. 1-496; 2nd half: pp. 497-1103. [top]

Lehmann’s Introduction: 955-88.


1966: Lehmann, Gerhard (ed): Lectures on Logic (Ak. 24, 1st half: pp. 1-496). [top]

(1) Logik Herder [Herder 2] (24:3-6). [See also the Herder logic fragment printed at 24:1099-1100.]

(2) Logik Blomberg [an-Blomberg] (24:16-301).

(3) Logik Philippi [Philippi 3] (24:311-496).


1966: Lehmann, Gerhard (ed): Lectures on Logic (Ak. 24, 2nd half: pp. 497-1103). [top]

Includes an introduction by Lehmann.

(1) Logik Pölitz [an-Pölitz 3.1] (24:502-602).  [See also a fragment inadvertently printed as part of the metaphysics notes at Ak. 28:5311-4020.]

(2) Logik Busolt [Busolt 3] (24:608-86).

(3) Logik Dohna-Wundlacken [Dohna-Wundlacken 3] (24:693-784).

(4) Wiener Logik [an-Wien] (24:790-940).

(5) Logik-Auszüge Schlapp (24:941-52).

(a) Aus der Logik Hintz [Hintz] (24:943-4).

(b) Aus der Logik Hoffmann [Hoffmann] (24:944-52).

(6) Appendix (Ak. 24:953-1103).

(a) Abbreviations (24:954).

(b) Introduction by Lehmann (24:955-88).

(c) Endnotes to vol. 24 (24:989-1024); includes a fragment from Weisflog (24:1021-22).

(d) Changes to the text and variants (24:1025-84).

(e) Listing of the paragraphs of Meier’s Auszug aus der Vernunftlehre with mention of their occurrence in the logic lectures (24:1025-89).

(f) Additions and Corrections: Logic Fragment from Herder (24:1099-1102).

(g) Table of Contents (24:1103).


25: Anthropology (2 vols.; 1998), cli, 1691pp: 1st half: pp. cli, 1-728; 2nd half: pp. 729-1691. [top]

Brandt & Stark’s Introduction: vii-cli.

(1) Anthropologie Collins [Collins 1], with variant readings from Philippi, Hamilton, Brauer, Dohna, Parow, and Euchel (25:7-238).

(2) Anthropologie Parow [an-Parow] (25:243-463).

(3) Anthropologie Friedländer [an-Friedländer 1] (25:469-728).

(4) Anthropologie Pillau [an-Pillau 1] (25:733-847).

(5) Anthropologie Menschenkunde [an-Starke 1] (25:853-1203).

(6) Anthropologie Mrongovius [Mrongovius 1] (25:1209-1429).

(7) Anthropologie Busolt [Busolt 1] (25:1435-1531).

(8) Selected passages from Philippi, Prieger, Dohna, Reichel, Kant’s published Anthropology, Berlin, Dingelstaedt, Elsner, Gotthold, Matuszewski, anon-Königsberg 1, and Starke 2 (25:1535-64).

(9) Bibliography (25:1565-1658).

(10) Name index (25:1659-91).


26: Physical Geography (2009, forthcoming) [top]

Stark's Introduction (with appendices): v-lxxx.  Part 2 is forthcoming.


2009: Stark, Werner (ed): Lectures on Physical Geography (Ak. 26, part 1; pp. lxxx, 1-374). [top]

(1) Holstein-Beck [an-Holstein-Beck] (26:7-320).


27: Moral Philosophy (1974, 1975, 1979) [top]

Lehmann's Introduction: 1037-62.


1974: Lehmann, Gerhard (ed): Lectures on Moral Philosophy (Ak. 27, 1st half; pp. 1-473). [top]

(1) Praktische Philosophie Herder [Herder 5] (27:3-89).

(2) Praktische Philosophie Powalski [Powalski 2] (27:96-235).

(3) Moralphilosophie Collins [Collins 2] (27:243-471).


1975: Lehmann, Gerhard (ed): Lectures on Moral Philosophy (Ak. 27, 2nd half, pt 1; pp. 475-1028).  [top]

Includes a reprint of the 2nd and 3rd editions of Baumgarten’s Ethica Philosophica.

(1) Metaphysik der Sitten Vigilantius [Vigilantius 4] (27:479-732).

(2) A. G. Baumgarten, Ethica Philosophica, 1751 (27:737-869).

(3) A. G. Baumgarten, Ethica Philosophica, 1763; includes an index (27:873-1028).


1979: Lehmann, Gerhard (ed): Lectures on Moral Philosophy (Ak. 27, 2nd half, pt 2; pp. 1029-1583). [top]

Includes an introduction by Lehmann.

(1) Appendix (27:1029-1583).

(a) Abbreviations (27:1031-6).

(b) Introduction by Lehmann (27:1037-62).

(c) Concordance of contents of Achenwall and Naturrecht Feyerabend (27:1063-8).

(d) Endnotes to vol. 27 (27:1069-1152).

(e) Changes to the text and variants (27:1153-1204).

(f) Variant texts (27:1205-1316)

(i) Moralphilosophie Kaehler [J. F. Kaehler] (27:1205). [Schöndörffer fragments only]

(ii) Philosophische Moral v. Brandt/Aron [Brandt] (27:1206-19).

(iii) Philosophia practica Marburg [an-Friedländer 3] (27:1220-47).

(iv) Moralische Vorlesung 1791 [an-Berlin 2] (27:1248-66).

(v) Philosophische Moral Dilthey [an-Dilthey] (27:1267-1316).

(2) Naturrecht Feyerabend [Feyerabend] (27:1319-94).

(3) Moral Mrongovius [an-Mrongovius] (27:1397-1581).

(4) Appendix (continued)...

(g) Corrections (27:1582).

(h) Table of Contents (27:1583).


28: Metaphysics & Rational Theology (1968, 1970, 1972) [top]

Lehmann's Introduction: 1338-72.


1968: Lehmann, Gerhard (ed): Lectures on Metaphysics (Ak. 28, 1st half; pp. 1-524). [top]

(1) Metaphysik Herder [Herder 4] (28:5-166).

(a) Metaphysik Herder, “from the original” (28:5-55).

(b) Metaphysik Herder, “from Menzer’s copy”[1] (28:59-140).

(c) Metaphysik Herder, “from the original” (28:143-51).

(d) Metaphysik Herder “Introduction to Metaphysics, Metaphysical Foundations of Physics, from the original” [from Herder’s “Blue Notebook,” Herder Nachlaß XX.188] (28:155-66).  [NB: Little or none of this stems from Kant’s metaphysics lectures.]

(2) Metaphysik L1 [an-Pölitz 1 (28:167-350).

(a) MP H [Rosenhagen] (28:171-7): “Prolegomena.”; with variant readings from MP K1 [an-Korff], as published as “Beilage I” in Heinze (1894, 663-9).

(b) MP H [Rosenhagen], K1 [an-Korff], L1 [an-Pölitz 1] (28:177-81): “Begriff von Raum und Zeit”; this is a text common to all three sets of notes, with all variant readings noted, as published as “Beilage II” in Heinze (1894, 670-74).

(c) MP L1 [an-Pölitz 1] (28:185-91). Reprint from Heinze (1894, 520-31). Italicized text is Heinze’s commentary.

(d) MP L1 [an-Pölitz 1] (28:195-350): “Cosmology”, “Psychology”, and “Rational Theology” from Pölitz (1821).

(3) Metaphysik Volckmann [Volckmann 3] (28:355-459).

(4) Metaphysik von Schön Ontologie [von Schön 2] (28:461-524).


[1] All of the text copied here from Menzer’s own notes were transcribed from the original for the 1970 volume below, and this later transcription is more reliable; more detail is provided in the discussion of the Herder notes.  Ak. 28: 13730-13829 is actually from a manuscript (NL-Herder XXV.41), although Lehmann includes it among the material based on Menzer’s rough copy.


1970: Lehmann, Gerhard (ed): Lectures on Metaphysics (28, 2nd half, pt 1; pp. 525-987). [top]

(1) Metaphysik L2 [an-Pölitz 3.2] (28:525-610).

(a) MP L2 (28:531-77): “Prolegomena” and “Ontology” as printed in Pölitz (1821). [NB: 28:5311-54020 is part of an-Pölitz 3.1 (logic), and was inadvertently inserted here by Pölitz (1821) and retained by Lehmann (1970).]

(b) MP L2 (28:581-609): “Cosmology” (partial) and “Psychology” transcribed from the original ms. Reprint of “Beilage V” in Heinze (1894,  698-727).

(2) Metaphysik Dohna [Dohna-Wundlacken 4] “from the Original” (28:615-702).

(3) Four-page essay on ontology (28:703-4).  Same handwriting as the Dohna metaphysics notes.  Probably a student essay written for a disputation in one of Kant’s practicals.  Kowalewski (1924) associates it with the text at Ak. 28:651.

(4) Metaphysik K2 [an-Königsberg 5] (28:705-816).

(a) Auszüge Heinze (28:709-50).  Italicized text is Heinze’s commentary on passages from the Prolegomena, Ontology, Cosmology, and Empirical Psychology.

(b) Teilstücke Heinze (28:751-812).

(i) MP K2 (28:753-75): “Psychologia rationalis” (ms 204-240).  Reprint of “Beilage IV” of Heinze (1894, 679-97).

(ii) MP K2 (28:775-812): “Theologia Naturalis.” (ms 244-293).  Reprint of “Beilage V” of Heinze (1894, 698-727).

(c) Auszüge Schlapp (28:815-16).  Italicized text is Schlapp’s commentary.

(5) Metaphysik K3 [Vigilantius 3] (28:817-38).

(a) Auszüge Arnoldt (28:821-34).  Italicized text is Arnoldt’s commentary.

(b) Auszug Schlapp (28:837-8).  Italicized text is Schlapp’s commentary.

(6) Nachträge Herder [Herder 4] (28:839-962).

(a) Metaphysik Herder, “from the original” (28:843-931).

(b) Material from Herder’s “Blue Notebook” (28:935-46).  [NB: These are probably not notes from Kant’s metaphysics lectures.]

(c) Herder’s essay on “Sein” (28:951-61).  [NB: This is a student essay written by Herder, and not notes from Kant’s metaphysics lectures.]

(d) Concordance of Baumgarten paragraphs and Herder’s notes on metaphysics (28:963-87).


1972: Lehmann, Gerhard (ed): Lectures on Rational Theology (Ak. 28, 2nd half, pt 2; pp. 988-1529). [top]

Includes the notes to the metaphysics lectures, as well as a reprint of Pölitz’ “Prefaces” to his volumes of Kant’s lectures on religion of philosophy (1817) and metaphysics (1821). Includes an introduction by Lehmann.

(1) Philosophische Religionslehre nach Pölitz [an-Pölitz 2] (28:993-1126).

(2) Natürliche Theologie Volckmann nach Baumbach [Volckmann 4] (28:1131-1225).

(3) Danziger Rationaltheologie nach Baumbach [Mrongovius 3] (28:1231-1319).

(4) Fragment of a later manuscript on Rational Theology [Mrongovius 3] (28:1323-31).

(5) Appendix (28:1333-1529).

(a) Abbreviations (28:1335-37).

(b) Introduction by Lehmann (28:1338-72).

(c) Endnotes to vol. 28 (28:1373-1449).

(d) Changes to the text and variants (28:1450-1510).

(e) Additions (28:1511-27)

(i) Pölitz, “Vorrede zu Kants Vorlesungen über Metaphysik (28:1511-14).

(ii) Pölitz, “Vorreden zu Kants Vorlesungen über die philosophische Religionslehre”: 1st ed (28:1514-16); 2nd ed (28:1516-18).

(iii) Uneingerichtetes aus K1, nach Erdmann II (28:1518-27).

(f) Corrections (28:1527).

(g) Table of Contents (28:1528-9).


29: Other Lectures and Supplements (Philosophical Encyclopedia, Mathematics, Physics, plus newly found lectures on Moral Philosophy, Metaphysics, Logic, and Rational Theology — 1980, 1983) [top]

Lehmann's Introduction: 650-71, 1083-1103.


1980: Lehmann, Gerhard (ed): Lesser Lectures and Supplement I (Ak. 29, 1st half, pt 1; pp. 1-742). [top]

Includes an introduction by Lehmann as well as a reprint of Karsten, Kenntniß der Nature (1783 edition).

(1) Philosophische Enzyklopädie [an-Friedländer 4.1] (29:5-45).

(2) Mathematik Herder [Herder 3] (29:49-66).

(3) Physik Herder [Herder 6] (29:69-71).  A photograph of the first page of the Herder manuscript is inserted after this selection.

(4) Berliner Physik [an-Friedländer 4.4] (29:75-91), with illustrations from the margins reproduced at 29:92.

(5) Danziger Physik [Mrongovius 4.1] (29:97-169).

(6) W. J. G. Karsten, Anleitung zur gemeinnützlichen Kenntniß der Nature, besonders für angehende Aerzte, Cameralisten und Oeconomen (Halle, 1783) (29:173-590).

This is the edition that Kant used in his physics lectures [see], although 1785 is the only semester that lists this text.  Kant’s own copy is lost, and no marginalia — if there were any — have been preserved.  Kant had also used texts by J. P. Eberhard (Erste Gründe der Naturlehre, 1753) and J. C. P. Erxleben (Anfangsgründe der Naturlehre, 2nd ed.: 1772).

(7) Moral Mrongovius II [Mrongovius 4.2] (29:597-642).

(8) Appendix (29:643-742).

(a) Abbreviations (29:645-9).

(b) Introduction by Lehmann (29:650-71).

(c) Endnotes to vol. 29, 1st part (29:672-720).

(d) Changes to the text and variants (29:721-40).

(e) Table of Contents for vol. 29, 1st part (29:741-2).


1983: Lehmann, Gerhard (ed): Supplement II (Ak. 29, 1st half, pt 2; pp. 743-1187). [top]

Includes an introduction by Lehmann.

(1) Metaphysik Mrongovius [Mrongovius 2] (29:747-940).

(2) Metaphysik Arnoldt (K3) [Vigilantius 3] (29:945-1040).

(3) Logik Mrongovius [Mrongovius 4.3] (29:1045-47).

(4) Variant readings comparison of the “Philosophische Religionslehre nach Pölitz” (printed at 28:993-1126) with the Vernunft-Theologie Magath [Magath] (29:1053-77).

(5) Appendix (29:1079-1184).

(a) Abbreviations (29:1081-2).

(b) Introduction by Lehmann (29:1083-1103).

(c) Endnotes to vol. 29, 2nd part (29:1104-47).

(d) Changes to the text and variants (29:1148-85).

(e) Table of Contents for vol. 29, 2nd part (29:1187-8).

Copyright ©2006 Steve Naragon (Manchester University)
Last modified: 6 Jul 2014
Please send comments and questions to: ssnaragon@manchester.edu