KANT IN THE CLASSROOM     Materials to aid the study of Kant’s lectures

Bibliography
Kant’s Writings
Academy Edition
Glossary
Biographies
Kant’s Life

> Universities

Students
Professors

Introduction
Governance and Organization
Kant as Dean, Senator, & Rector
List: Brief Descriptions of German Universities
List: Universities founded before 1815
Table: Average Enrollments [Graphs]
> Table: Full Professors

Kant’s Lectures
The Student Notes

Table: Full Professors employed in German Universities

Numbers of Full Professors (1758 and 1796)
 TheolLawMedPhilTotalTheolLawMedPhilTotal
Altdorf333514333615
Bamberg441312457622
Duisburg332311333414
Erfurt7107731333413
Erlangen334818355720
Frankfurt752519342615
Gießen232613344819
Göttingen411620413981535
Greifswald363517443617
Halle610138374471925
Heidelberg353718875626
Helmstedt463718875626
Jena410416343551023
Ingolstadt553720476623
Kiel222410355720
Königsberg8891035544518
Leipzig514817445861130
Mainz34331312882048
Marburg35210203561327
Rinteln332311332412
Rostock543719354921
Tübingen3105523465621
Wien95415337671333
Wittenberg45418314541023
Würzburg355316554721
Mean ave.4.26.04.18.122.34.45.24.88.622.7

This table is based on Eulenberg’s data [1904, 319] and shows the number of full professors (ordentliche Professoren) [glossary] at German universities during the years 1758 (left-hand columns) and 1796 (right-hand columns) — thus, near the beginning and near the end of Kant’s teaching career.  Eulenburg provides data for more schools than shown here; this graph includes only those schools for which there was a complete data set.  He also provides totals for the four faculties for 1796 (the most complete data set): theology (184), Law (174), medicine (159), and philosophy (274), with a total number of 791 full professors (this includes the Austrian universities).

Eulenburg elsewhere [1908, 9-11] estimates a total of 86 associate (ausserordentliche) professors and 38 lecturers (Privatdozenten) in all the German-speaking universities, and in 1796 these numbers had grown to 141 associate professors and 86 lecturers (which together constituted one-fourth of the total teaching staff; by 1840 they would constitute one-half).

A list of the philosophy faculty at Königsberg (as well as timelines of the philosophy, theology and medicine faculties) is provided under the Professors pages.  When comparing that information with the data for Königsberg listed here, one immediately notes a discrepancy: sources other than Eulenberg indicate that there were nine full professors in the philosophy faculty at Königsberg in 1758 (the normal eight, plus C. C. Flottwell), and seven in 1796 (Mangelsdorff was professor of both Rhetoric/History and of Poetry).

Copyright ©2006 Steve Naragon (Manchester University)
Last modified: 8/22/2006
Please send comments and questions to: ssnaragon@manchester.edu