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Manchester University Pharmacy Program
Program-level outcomes for the Doctor of Pharmacy Curriculum
First level (e.g. 1.) Outcome domain
Second level (e.g. 1.1.) Practice-oriented, terminal, ability-based outcomes
Third level (e.g. 1.1.1.) Enabling outcomes (those that are not terminal outcomes but nonetheless necessary to state explicitly when developing the Pharm.D. curriculum)
1. Formulate a patient-centered pharmaceutical care plan.
1.1. Demonstrate a professional commitment to providing patient-centered care.
1.2. Gather and organize essential patient information.
1.2.1. Take a medication-related history.
1.2.2. Gather patient information from medical records and databases.
1.2.3. Perform accurate physical assessments.
1.3. Develop and prioritize a complete medical and drug therapy problem list.
1.3.1. Describe the pathophysiology and natural history of human disease states.
126.96.36.199. Describe the anatomy and physiology of human body systems.
188.8.131.52. Describe the biochemical, molecular, and cellular structure and function of human body systems.
184.108.40.206. Describe the principles of microbiology.
1.3.2. Describe the mechanism of action of drugs on a body system.
1.4. Design and implement a patient-specific and evidence-based care plan.
1.4.1. Advise patients on appropriate use of non-prescription therapies.
1.4.2. Apply pharmacokinetic principles to calculate a medication dose.
1.4.3. Apply pharmacogenomic principles to drug selection, dosing, and monitoring.
1.4.4. Use biotechnology-based therapies appropriately.
1.5. Monitor and evaluate the effects of drug therapy.
2. Communicate effectively with patients, caregivers, and health professionals.
2.1. Provide concise verbal and/or written information that is appropriate for the target audience.
2.2. Empower patients and their care givers to actively participate in therapeutic decision making and self-management.
2.2.1. Employ principles of motivational interviewing.
2.3. Communicate and work collaboratively with other health care professionals to solve patient care problems.
2.3.1. Document patient care plans and other information in the medical record.
2.3.2. Work and communicate effectively with pharmacy personnel.
2.4. Use communication strategies that are appropriate to the purpose of the interaction and to the ideas, values, and background of the audience.
2.4.1. Demonstrate an awareness of and sensitivity to cultural differences among individuals.
3. Manage medication use and distribution systems.
3.1. Store, select, prepare, and distribute medications in a legal, safe and effective manner.
3.1.1. State and apply laws and regulations which govern the practice of pharmacy.
3.2. Work with pharmacy benefit management systems to provide timely and cost-effective distribution of medications.
3.3. Use current technology, including automation and informatics systems, to prevent medication-related errors, increase accuracy and compliance, and assure patient safety.
3.4. Conduct pharmacy business operations in order to manage pharmacy staff, efficiently deliver pharmacy services and maintain quality care while maximizing financial opportunities.
3.5. Perform prospective drug review to ensure appropriateness, safety, and cost effectiveness of a medication order.
3.6. Extemporaneously compound sterile and non-sterile preparations.
3.6.1. Describe pharmaceutical principles of dosage forms.
3.7. Participate in pharmaceutical care-related quality improvement processes.
3.7.1. Design a medication use evaluation.
3.8. Perform accurate and complete medication reconciliation for patients transitioning between levels of health care.
4. Use literature effectively to inform and support patient care and practice decisions.
4.1. Formulate and communicate critical and patient-centered responses to requests for drug-related information.
4.1.1. Retrieve useful information from the available body of literature.
4.1.2. Critically analyze and evaluate drug information and medical literature.
4.2. Use the literature to make evidence-based decisions regarding patient care and medication use systems.
5. Work towards improving the health of populations.
5.1. Detect health care trends affecting patient populations using pharmacoeconomic and pharmacoepidemiologic information.
5.2. Design an evidence-based disease management program that incorporates outcome indicators, drug treatment protocols, risk reduction strategies, and education programs.
5.3. Promote public awareness of diseases and healthy lifestyle practices in collaboration with organizations and individuals.
5.4. Become certified to provide immunizations.
5.5. Be prepared to participate in emergency plans and disaster response systems on local and national levels.
5.6. Counsel patients on healthy lifestyle and wellness strategies.
5.7. Advocate for policies that increase access to health services and reduce health risks and disparities.
5.7.1. Describe the system of health care delivery in the United States and around the world.
6. Demonstrate professionalism and ethical behavior in all aspects of pharmacy practice.
6.1. Exhibit ethical behavior in all aspects of pharmacy practice.
6.2. Exhibit professional behavior in relationships with patients and other health care professionals, and in carrying out the duties of pharmacy practice.
7. Use critical and scientific thinking methods.
7.1. Employ a critical thinking process when solving patient care problems.
7.2. Design and conduct an investigation of a problem/question using scientific principles and methods.
8. Provide leadership to improve oneself and others.
8.1. Engage in continual professional development by self-assessing learning needs, and creating, implementing and evaluating a plan for professional development.
8.2. Engage in service to the community and profession and reflect on how this service promotes both personal development and benefits the community and profession.
8.3. Address contemporary issues in pharmacy practice through change management and leadership skills.