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Full listing > Accession MC2006/13: Schwalm's Confidential Files
Accession #MC2006/13: Schwalm's Confidential Files
TopicSchwalm, Vernon: Correspondence with Andrew Cordier,
TitlePresident Vernon Schwalm's Correspondence with Andrew Cordier
LocationIIS, Large Box area 176
CitationPresident Vernon Schwalm's Correspondence with Andrew Cordier, MC2006/13: Schwalm's Confidential Files, Archives and Church of the Brethren Collection, Funderburg Library, Manchester University, North Manchester, Indiana.
AccessResearchers are responsible for determining copyright status of archived materials where this is relevant to their intended use of the materials.
ProvenanceMaterial from the "President's Attic" MC2006/13
Scope and Content

Schwalm Confidential – From the President’s Attic

-          With notes by David Waas.


Cordier File A - Schwalm and Cordier Correspondence: Miscellaneous

Cordier and Schwalm enjoyed a rich correspondence spanning several decades. They talk about personal experiences, education, Manchester College, the United Nations, and international political situations. Some of these letters have missing pages.  With further research, these pages might be found within other file folders.

1.       Pages 2 & 3 of a letter describing personalities  and politics – Cordier correspondence from the United Nations regarding Palestine, Egypt, Dr. Fawzi, Israel, Ben Gurion, Eisenhower, Dulles, Eden, Hugh Gaitskell, Great Britain, and the leadership of the United Nations Secretary-General.

2.       Page 2 of personal letter to Schwalm, Andrew Cordier as Dean, Columbia University School of International Affairs.

3.       1946 – Manchester alumnus, Raphael Wolfe, former pupil of Cordier’s, writes the college in support of Cordier’s work in the United Nations.

4.       Page 2 of personal letter from Cordier to Schwalm while Cordier was Acting President (Columbia?).

5.       Page 2 - Handwritten letter signed by Schwalm to Cordier. Cordier and Schwalm enjoyed a rich correspondence talking about personal experience, friendship, and international political situations.

6.       Page 20 of an address or sermon regarding the international scene and the role of young people.

7.       Page 13, and perhaps page 20 and 21 – of what appears to be a plan of action for a college (Manchester College?).

8.       Handwritten draft - Identified by Schwalm (probably) as “Cordiers’ Farewell” and is entitled “We.” It addresses both Andrew Cordier and his wife.  It gives a brief history of Cordier’s career and mention Cordier’s involvement in Landon’s political campaign of 1936.


Cordier File B – Schwalm and Cordier Correspondence: 1923 – 1947

Note from David Waas: Cordier Bites – 10/6/1945 has interesting observations on the discussions about the location of the U.N.O [United Nations Organization] offices.  Canada and or U.S., - and where in the U.S., if that is the ultimate location?  Also views on new American role of world leadership.



1.       1923 letter from Dean Vernon Schwalm to Cordier [6047 Ellis Ave., Chicago] during Cordier’s University of Chicago experience – regarding job offer of a teaching position at Manchester College.

2.       23 May 1925 letter from Dean Schwalm to Cordier rejoicing that Schwalm will be teaching at Manchester.

3.       26 May 1925 letter from Cordier [1014 East 61st St., Chicago] to Dean Schwalm, during Cordier’s University of Chicago experience announcing the death of President Burton [University of Chicago].  Schwalm decides to return to Manchester as an instructor. “ ….. A position, after all, is only what one makes it.  Hence, I will throw myself whole-heartedly into the task and contribute insofar as I am able to the realization of all of our hopes for M.C.”

4.       29 May 1925 draft of letter to Cordier in Chicago.


Note:    In 1927 Schwalm leaves Manchester to Become President of McPherson College.


5.       3 November 1927 – unfinished letter from Cordier to Schwalm. This might be one of the unfinished letters referenced in letter #6 below as it also alludes to a rebuke from Schwalm regarding Cordier’s failure to correspond. “…I have no real reason for my long delay.  Since your departure not a single day has passed in which I have failed to think of you in one relation or another….”  It also describes the work of Cordier and his wife, Dorothy’s, as well as the number preaching and speaking engagements presented by Cordier.


6.       Handwritten letter from Andrew Cordier, Ph. D., Professor of History, Manchester College to Vernon Schwalm updating Schwalm on people and events at the College, including a large gift from Dr. Shaffer and the possibility of receiving an endowment from Calvin Ulrey. Schwalm is probably President of McPherson College during this time.  Cordier describes his curriculum for Sunday School as well as the teaching ability of several M.C. professors.  Following is an excerpt from Cordier’s reflection about the direction of his personal career.  He is reaching a turning-point that he shares only with R. H.* and Schwalm:  “…My summer’s trip and subsequent thinking has let me to see the many ways in which the historian’s research can be diverted into useful channels for the solution of world problems.  To follow the beckonings of this reflexion would lead to a change of emphasis from medieval to modern history.  We are historians, but we are also Christians; the major problems before our country and before the world can well test the mettle of the historian who tries to adhere to the Christian philosophy.  If we fail here, what else matters?  A first-hand contact with Europe’s war sores makes one think and pray with Tennyson ‘Oh, that the world from end to end, might sow and reap in peace.’ …”

Cordier alludes to a rebuke from Schwalm regarding Cordier’s failure to write.

·         When Schwalm refers to R. H. this will be interpreted by the archivist as being R. H. Miller, who was pastor at Manchester Church of the Brethren and instructor at MC.  See Brethren Encyclopedia.


7.       3 December 1927 – Friendly letter from Cordier to Schwalm mentioning Mrs. Schwalm’s illness and the blessing of Cordier’s son, Lowell.  Cordier talks about his classes and public speaking events.  There is a mention of President Winger and his upcoming trip: “Winger will be leaving soon.  J. O. will take over much of his work.  I won’t affect his class work very much however; it can’t. I have become a very [?] supporter of the status quo. So ‘I expect things will move along very nicely.’ The new administration cooperates very harmoniously with Pres. Winger. He has earned a well deserved rest.” – [The researcher might note that some turbulent times lie ahead  as Winger makes the transition into retirement – as evidenced in Winger’s correspondence with Schwalm circa 1942, 1943.]


8.       21 December [1927*] – In letter beginning with “Dear Kansas friends:” – Cordier describes life on campus during Christmas vacation. He states that he is sending several letters in proof that he had attempted to write earlier (perhaps this letter goes with letter #5?). * Cordier goes on to describe the personalities of college personnel, the burial of Mildred Shively, and the talent of R. H. [Miller*].

*Cordier talks about the Wingers’ European trip and a farewell event – so this must be the December of 1927.


9.       22 June 1928 – Cordier talks about an upcoming trip and wishes he and Schwalm could be making the trip together.  Cordier also writes, “Accept our belated sympathy in your father in law’s passing.  I have been spending much time recently in attempting to think out some sort of a philosophy of death and immortality…-…Strange is it not? That of the myriads who, before us, pass the door of darkness through, not one returns to tell us of the road, which to discover we must travel too…”


10.   2 June 1929 – Cordier writes information at the College, including “The graduating class was the largest in the history of the school. A genuine sadness was thrown into our camp when one of our boys a Freshman, Walter highly, was drowned at Long Lake, Wednesday afternoon.  As emergency equipment was being brought from Wabash the car hit another car and killed three people.  Walter was a promising boy.  It’s just another evidence of the uncertainty of life.”  Cordier also talks about he and his wife’s incredibly busy schedule and the nature of their work. Cordier critiques Schwalm’s recent articles in the Messenger and comments on the Church of the Brethren as well “…Our people must make rapid adjustments – not compromises – if we hope to survive.  We must restate our half-lost objectives.  We must develop clear conceptions of our raison d’’etre;  we must justify our existence as Dunkards.  It is not sufficient that we should simply prove our peculiarities.  I am certain that we have a place to fill in this world, but I am not sure that we are going to fill it.  A war-worn world needs our philosophy and example of peace, a luxury-mad world, with yawning chasms between rich and poor, needs our examples of the simple life.  We have not yet breathed into the words – peace, faith, love, simple life, etc. – the implications which they must bear in the new world of ours.”

Cordier writes of President Hoover – “Does it not hearten you to follow Hoover’s statesmanlike activities?  His Memorial day address give(s) me cause for much rejoicing…”


11.   28 June 1930 – Cordier [Geneva, Switzerland] writes Schwalm [London, England]. “Your three weeks stay in England I know, will be very delightful.  To listen to England’s greatest inds for three weeks in the ‘gloomy beauty’ of Toynbee Hall is an experience in itself…Eddy is a very good party leader and the congeniality of the majority of the members of the party increase the value of the summer’s experience.”

Cordier writes of his own experience and that of his wife and child.  “…We have been here 11 days.  I have spent considerable time in the League and the Institute Libraries searching for the materials necessary for my work.  The League Library is particularly rich.  This week I have been attending a series of lectures….Yesterday I attended a plenary session of the International Labor Conference.  It was an impressive gathering.”

Cordier sates that in one month Schwalm will be in Geneva and the Cordiers’ want to have Schwalm in their home as much as possible.  It appears as if a conference is going on and Cordier and Schwalm will be attending meetings together.* Cordier makes a personal reflection -  “There are many things about which I should like to speak to you.  The distant view this year will give me an opportunity to evaluate the past and plan for the future.  Your progressive attitudes and actions have always been an inspiration to me…”


*This is probably The League of Nations Assembly mentioned in letter #12.


12.   19 October 1930, Cordier writes Schwalm [McPherson College] from Geneva, Switzerland. He shares that President Winger is about to start a drive to raise a million dollar endowment.  Cordier describes his personal research and reflects upon the outcome of The League of Nations Assembly as well as the abilities of various participants.



13.   24 August 1931 – Cordier to Schwalm – an extremely personal letter. “…So much of our life is humdrum that the real ‘gleams’ of reality play upon our lives all too seldom.  I must confess that I am passing through a transitional experience…”  ….”Sometimes I have moments of intense ‘loneliness.’ When even the light that I know seems a far cry from the life that I live.  How righteous shall a man be? Is still a question that all of us or at least I can ask myself.  I do not mean in the narrow sense of personal morality although even there it is difficult enough to live as one would like to, but in the broader sense of using one’s life in a terribly complex world.”  Cordier explains what he means when he writes, “Many of us, I fear, are going to follow the wide and open road of ‘social respectability,’ or ‘good citizenship’ of ‘Kiwanian service’ to certain destruction.”


14.   10 August 1938, Cordier writes Schwalm from the League library Geneva, Switzerland.   “Next week, I participate in the Geneva Institute, and then I go to Italy and Greece for a few days before returning to America.  This has been my richest trip to Europe…..I have had seemingly endless interviews with significant persons on many aspects of the European situation and of national problems…” Cordier describes his European travel and his meetings, including a trip to Germany “It was hard to pull away from Germany this summer.  One has a feeling that history – and some tragedy – is being made there.  Terrific energy, dogged determination but I fear a misplaced sense of direction are all evident there. I’ll be back at my school work at M.C. on Sept. 6 – much refreshed and with a great volume of additional information for my classes and lectures…”   The shoe seems to be on the other foot as Cordier writes, “I hear about you through your friends at N.M. occasionally.  I know you are terribly busy but I would appreciate hearing from you once in a great while.”


15.   14 January 1931 – Copy of letter from Schwalm that eludes to Schwalm being offered the presidency at M.C. “I shall be glad for your help in carrying on the program at Manchester College in case I find it possible to accept the offer of your Board of Trustees.”


16.   8 May 1944 – Schwalm compliments Mrs. Cordier and Mrs. Freed upon their excellent job of decorating and preparing for the alumni meeting. “The napkins, the music and the other ideas were original and pretty.”


17.   11 December 1944 – Cordier writes from the Department of State, Washington, D.C. – “The general world situation is incredibly bad as you know.  I cannot see the end except in a continuous succession of difficulties with a strong change of degeneration into world war III.  In fact, it is easily possible for the two wars to merge without a pause between them.  However there is a fighting chance to avoid such a calamity and to that end some of us are devoting all of our energies.”   Cordier describes his work, including, “….This week we brought all of our work to a head in drafting textual changes in the document which will be presented to the United Nations Conference. …. ….My work as a member of the Germany Committee of the Department is also most revealing.  I do not believe that words exist that can any longer successfully describe the Agony of Europe.”


18.   15 December 1944 – attached to Cordier’s letter of 11 Dec. 1944 - Copy of letter from Schwalm to Cordier [1839 Ontario Place, N. W., Washington, D.C.]. Discussion about the world situation including the set-up of The League of Nations.


19.   30 July 1945 – Cordier sends a check to Schwalm or Cordier’s  annuity, then he writes, “Today I was asked by the State Department to fly to London next Monday or Tuesday to serve on the Staff of the International Secretariat of the Preparatory Commission, which is responsible for setting up the United Nations Organization.” Cordier writes how he feels about the assignment and about how the the Senate voted 89 to 2 in favor of the United Nations Charter.



20.   6 August 1945 –  attached to letter #19 - Message from Cordier to Schwalm including, “The Department [of State] received a cable from London today approving its request that I be appointed Chief of the Section of the Commission responsible for setting up the General Assembly.  I hope that I may contribute a little to a worthwhile result.”

Dorothy Cordier includes a note about the annuity.


21.   10 September 1945 –Copy of letter from Schwalm to Cordier [American Embassy in London, England]. Schwalm describes life at the College. “…A month ago it seemed that we would have the largest enrollment of girls that we have ever had.  Within the last month many of the girls have changed their plans due to marriage plans, teaching and other matters which are bringing it down considerably.  But we still have an excellent enrollment.”  He continues to write of world events, “The atomic bomb and its implication are of course disturbing.  I am not in the inside enough to know what is happening;  we should therefore be happy for a checkup with you.” “I want to assure you of our continued interest in your work … You may be sure that you have our best wished in your work.”


22.   6 October 1945 - Letter from Cordier to Schwalm – written from London.  Cordier writes about personal family issues, and then about his work in London. “My section on the General Assembly has been extremely busy because the General Assembly will, of course, be the first organ of the Organization.” Cordier continues to write in detail. He describes the psychology of the British people and observes the effects of the American invasion upon the British mind.  He states interest in studying the effects of a government-controlled economic order.  Near the close of his findings Cordier writes, “It seems to me in the light of all this that one does not need to be a chauvinist at all to say in utter truth that America and Americans have the greatest opportunity for leadership that has come to any nation in modern times…”


23.   2 December 1946 – Copy of letter from Schwalm to Cordier requesting a conversation about world events (among other things).


24.   24 October 1947 copy of letter from Schwalm to Cordier [United Nations] requesting Schwalm’s advice on the advisability of having an Institute of International Relations on campus in 1948. Schwalm also writes, “We notice from the papers that you have had quite a stormy time at the United Nations meetings.  Some have expressed the feeling that the action of the Assembly in the Palestine situation may provide a basis for a pattern of procedure which will be used in other situation….”   And that, “We have noticed your picture in Time Magazine this week and in Life a few weeks ago, and others have seen it in movie films.  We are glad for the good work you are doing.”


Cordier File C - Schwalm and Cordier Correspondence – and Cordier Addresses/Speeches:  1950 - 1959


Notes from David Waas [2013]:

Cordier to Schwalm August 2, 1950 – Interesting observation on Korean crisis with options for UN and U.S. – Details of Security Council options. Cordier and Schwalm views on U.S. leadership and role of Christianity vs. Communism.


Frank discussion of Korean crisis/conflict - Valuable for a Cordier biography.  Schedule and perspectives.


Text of Cordier speech at George William’s College 17 April 1959.

Text of Cordier speech at the Church of the Brethren Annual Conference 19 June 1959.


Note from the Archivist: Items of a personal nature are included in the correspondence as are international political events and behind-the-scenes accounts at the United Nations. Issues pertaining to the Church of the Brethren and Manchester College are also shared.  There is no way to present a synopsis of the information or subjects presented within each letter – the description only provides the researcher with a sense of what might be found.


1.       20 April 1950- Copy of Schwalm’s letter to Cordier with a donation of $100 for the United Nations.  It appears as if this money was obtained from proceeds from  a talk delivered at Manchester by Dr. Bunch.

2.       31 August 1950 – Cordier’s letter to Schwalm. Cordier reviews the Korean situation and explains the actions of the UN.  He talks about measures to restore relations between U.S. and the Soviet Union.  Cordier explains his activities as coordinator of the whole Korean military and relief action. He writes, “If this first experience in collective security through an international  organization succeeds it will greatly strengthen the peace machinery of the world and represent an important contribution toward the stabilization of peace. Cordier expresses his views on the potential for peaceful co-existence between the worlds of Communism and Democracy. He ends with a powerful closing paragraph, with excerpts following: “There has never been a time in American history when there is so much need for leadership, understanding and enlightenment…” America’s role in the world should not be one of dictatorship or of unilateral leadership but of a development of all the resources of mutual assistance among the free peoples of the world.  There are immense resources and possibilities for effective programs of mutual assistance which would life backward peoples of the world out of illiteracy, poverty, hunger and disease, and would provide them with the necessary sense of individual and national dignity to take their place as important sources of strength in a free world community.”

3.       4 September 1950 – Copy of letter from Schwalm to Cordier. Schwalm writes his ideas of the world situation and states, “From what I know of history, there never has existed a world situation which represented such potentiality for the complete destruction of civilization as now. “  He goes on to comment, “It would have been desirable if the United Nations had had a military force more or less independent of the United States so that it would not have been so obviously a fight with the United States and the Soviet…”

4.       3 October 1950 – Copy of letter from Schwalm to Cordier talking about Cordier coming to North Manchester and Schwalm’s hope that Cordier might speak to the community, pointing out how Manchester might focus its potentialities in order to make a contribution to the welfare of humanity. Schwalm compliments Cordier “I appreciate and admire tremendously the great work you are doing and trust that you may have strength and wisdom for the arduous task with which you are daily confronted.”

5.       7 October 1950 – Cordier to Schwalm – confirming that he intends to speak at Manchester College on 27 October 1950. Cordier shares – “I just returned…..from our last plenary meeting … where we passed the Korean resolution which sets for the blueprint of the United Nations policy for Korea…..I have been working vigorously with heads of Delegations here, including about a score of Foreign ministers, to maintain a clear-cut United Nations role in the Korean issue…..I have worked very closely and very intimately with men like Admiral Nimitz, General Marshall, General Bradley and General Hodges in the last four years and have come to the conclusion that they are real devotees of peace.  It is the politico-military type who really cause the difficulty…..These are people who have been climbing the political ladder by advocacy of military policies which often outrun good judgment and the best interest of the American people. “Cordier gives names of individuals who fall into the politico-military category.

6.       21 November 1950 attached to letter of 27 November 1950.

21 November – PERSONAL – “This has been a very constructive Assembly in many ways….succeeded in working out new programs which should…have a heavy impact on world affairs.  “On the  negative side….difficulties with the Soviet Union have, in some measure, been sharpened. The exact nature of the differences between the East and the West have been brought out more specifically than ever before.”

7.       27 November 1950 – Copy of letter from Schwalm to Cordier.  He mentions the coming of the Chinese delegates and their stop-over in Moscow. Schwalm congratulates and encourages Schwalm and writes, “It is gratifying to know that one of our graduates is rendering this great service.” Schwalm gives views on recent political elections and mentions that Charles Morris and wife, Mayme King (of Kansas), were in North Manchester.

8.       4 December 1950 – Copy of letter from Schwalm to Cordier in which he writes, “You have been on our minds much these last few days.  The turn of events seems tragic and fateful.  I am sure it is causing you no end of grief and tireless effort…..We are all trying to keep up hope.  We have faith that you men are doing your utmost against terrific odds.”

9.       11 December 1950 – letter from Cordier to Schwalm marked PERSONAL AND PRIVATE. “The Chinese Delegation has revealed itself as having a point of view very similar to the Russian communists in 1918.” “The Chinese today feel that they are living in a hostile world ready to pounce upon them and bring about the overthrow of the regime….Even though it is completely in error it is a serious psychological problem that must be dealt with.”

10.   19 December 1950 – Schwalm to Cordier marked as PERSONAL. “It would do me a great deal of good if I could talk to you and go over the case……..”  “If I may I would like to report a little of the feeling here….(Schwalm indicates how people are perceiving the U.S. President).” Schwalm gives his impression -“ So many times the discussions in the newspapers and elsewhere makes the content seem almost exclusively a conflict between the United States and Russia.  Perhaps that can not be helped though I could wish it were not so.  Basically, I presume it is a contest between two ideologies of which the United States and Russia are the stronger representatives….”

11.   19 May 1951 letter from Cordier to Schwalm – PERSONAL – Cordier apologizes for not responding to Schwalm’s letter of December. Cordier is to begin a trip around the world and gives his itinerary and those he is visiting – Tokyo, for consultation with General Ridgway, Pusan, then north to visit the Korean Government, President Syngman Rhee and cabinet members, followed by all of the United Nations units fighting along the 38th parallel “We now have sixteen countries engaged in the military effort there, with forty-four assisting on the relief and rehabilitation aspects of the work.” From Korea, Cordier travels to India and Pakistan, consulting with Prime Minister Nehru about the Kashmir problem.  Palestine will be Cordier’s next stop, then Tripoli, Paris, and back to New York. “The general world situation continues to be grave, but I think it is slightly better than it was a month or two ago. We have greatly intensified our efforts to urge moderation and patience on all parties and have dealt vigorously with scores of issues having a direct or indirect bearing on the crisis.”  --- ‘It is part of the art of diplomacy to be able to use third parties effectively to bring influence to bear on parties directly concerned in a dispute.  In all parts of the world we are using not only direct action with the parties themselves but the effective influence that comes from the use of parties less directly concerned.”  Cordier also mentions having dinner with Carmen Blough and mentioned that Roy Blough dropped in to Cordier’s office for a visit.

12.   23 May 1951 – Copy of Schwalm’s response to Cordier.  Schwalm mentions that the school year had been a good one except for the “uncertainties caused by the selective service and war; Then, of course, the financial stringency which has followed due to those things….” He states the enrollment figures and his lecturing schedule.  “I am looking forward to the time when responsibilities will be less arduous.  It seems I have been at this business forever and certainly will enjoy a little change of pasture.” [note:  Schwalm will retire and give the presidency to Helman in 1956]. Schwalm reiterates how proud Manchester is of Cordier and the work he is doing.

13.   31 December 1951 – Cordier to Schwalm – mentions check for membership in the Century Club and an additional check coming for the Alumni Fund.  Cordier’s wife, Dorothy , had a two month vacation in Ohio and Indiana.

14.   8 January 1952 – Copy of Schwalm letter to Cordier – thanks for gift and bits of news and challenges of fund raising.

15.   22 January 1952 attached to letter of 28 January 1952. – 22 January Cordier to Schwalm – enclosing a check for $250 for the Alumni Fund and mention of the progress made by the General Assembly.

16.   28 January 1952 – Copy of letter from Schwalm to Cordier thanking Cordier for the contribution.  Schwalm writes about the Peace Studies department, “We here at Manchester College have been  wanting to enlarge our department of peace studies by adding courses in international relations, government, and related subjects.  The truth is that our Peace Studies department has gotten more publicity than the scope of our work justifies.  We are getting inquiries from Holland, England, Canada, and notices in the journals and newspapers through the United States.  We would like to do something a bit more significant because we believe that work in this field is important if intelligently done.

17.   20 October 1952 – Copy of letter of support from Schwalm to Cordier and other alumni in the United Nations staff at the opening of the 1953 United Nations Assembly.

18.   20 October 1952 – Another copy of letter sending Schwalm’s interest and support.

19.   27 October 1952 - PERSONAL – Cordier to Schwalm – apparently the entire faculty had signed the letter of 20 October 1952.  Cordier was deeply moved.  Cordier showed the letter to Roy Blough and David Blickenstaff, who join Cordier in expressing sincere thanks. Cordier describes the difficult Assembly and the emotional atmosphere surrounding it. “It is important above all things to keep calm and to make objectivity and the common interest prevail over national and individual selfishness.”…”In this situation there is unlimited opportunity for exercising a wholesome, mediating influence on all manner of major and minor issues, but I must admit that the number of issues and their complexity and difficulty are sometimes staggering.”

20.   66 November 1952 – Copy of Schwalm letter to Cordier. “Dr. Muir has been very sick for some time, and two children of Nr. Niswander have polio in slight form.”

21.   26 December 1952 – Copy of Schwalm letter to Cordier – invitation to come to Manchester to speak – friendly and a bit newsy.

22.   31 December 1952 – Cordier to Schwalm “Thank you for your letter of 26 December and the expression of appreciation for my work on behalf of peace.” He speaks of the Lie’s resignation, the suicide of Abe Feller and expressions of mass hysteria.  “As you very well know, we are passing through a very critical stage in the history of Western culture which, at its worst, could be its final phase, or at its best, if good, reasonable and sane people everywhere rally to bring it forth, a new era of human progress and betterment.  Fate has placed me in the very center of this struggle and as long as my strength and energies last, I will strive to weight the balance in the latter direction.” – included is a check for $200 from Mrs. Cordier (Dorothy) and Andrew - $100 in payment of their membership in the Century Club and $100 for the Alumni Fund.

23.   19 January 1953 – Schwalm writes about plans for Cordier’s trip to North Manchester and gives suggestions for talking points.

24.   10 February 1953 – Copy of Schwalm letter thanking Schwalm for the successful visit and splendid addresses.

25.   16 February 1953 letter attached to 18 February 1953 letter.

16 February copy of letter from L. W. Shultz criticizing Cordier for militaristic deviations from the teachings of Alexander Mack and Christopher Sower.

26.   18 February 1953 letter from Cordier to L. W. Shultz that masterfully blasts Shultz’s complaint and ends, “As for myself, I keep on being grateful for the remarkable opportunity I have had on a world-wide basis to help effect peace and assure some measure of world stability.”

27.   18 February 1953 Cordier to Schwalm “I, too, would have enjoyed a much longer discussion with you, but we must resume it when you come to New York. There are so many additional topics about which I should treasure an exchange of ideas.” Cordier mentions L. W. Shultz’s letter and writes, “A note from Lawrence Shultz this morning leads me to think that I might have left an impression in the minds of several people that I gave a rather strongly flavoured military interpretation of the Korean problem.  In replyling to him I have pointed out that many of the major initiatives and the leadership in the promotion of peaceful negotiations in Korea have been due to me.  Obviously I would not want to make such statements in public.  The whole pattern for the discussions in the Assembly last fall, for example, were due to my discussions with major delegations.” Cordier goes on to explain how he has been able to initiate some major peace mores in certain other part of the world, giving an example of the Middle East.

28.   5 May 1953 – Cordier to Schwalm congratulating him for the completion of the Winger building. He talks of the new Secretary-General, Mr. Hammarskjold, “A man of magnificent qualities.” Cordier goes on to explain the great work Hammarskjold is doing. He once again mentions Roy Blough and David Blickenstaff.

29.   26 December 1953 attached to 31 December 1953. 26 December 1953 with a check for $100 for Century Club.

30.   31 December 1953 –Schwalm to Cordier – thanks for check - mention of President Eisenhower, the importance of the United Nations, and gratitude for Cordier’s work.

31.   26 April 1954 Copy of Schwalm letter to Cordier – might Cordier represent Manchester at eh Commencement Exercises and Second Bicentennial Convocation at Columbia University?

32.   5 May 1954 – Copy of Schwalm letter to Cordier – “If one is to judge by the press reports, it would seem that the American allies are rapidly deserting us…” McCarthy “fiaso” in Washington.

33.   19 May 1954 - Cordier to Schwalm – Will try to go to Columbia University to act as Schwalm’s representative. “With regard to the world situation, I must confess that I am deeply depressed over recent develops in general.” ….  He talks of a trend for aggressive communism and the lack of enlightened leadership in Washington.

34.   18 June 1954 – Cordier to Schwalm – Roy Blough represented Schwalm at the Columbia University Commencement. Cordier and the Secretary-General were entertaining Hailie Selassie that afternoon and it was “impossible for me to get away.”

35.   24 June 1954 – letter attached to 18 June 1954 – Copy of Schwalm’s letter to Cordier – personal letter about the Church of the Brethren Annual Conference – “Conference was immensely large and in some sense unwieldy, though there were many encouraging aspects to it.”

36.   8 July 1954 - Cordier to Schwalm, “There are so many things I should like to discuss with you in this world of peril.  Cordier speaks of the Brethren Seminar – “A very fine group.  I saw many old students, friends and acquaintances.”  “The last several months seem to have hit new heights of intensity in my work.” …..”   Cordier describes the situation behind his statement, “The world problem today is far more discouraging than at any time since the end of World War II.” He speaks of the spread of Communism and the detrimental effects of McCarthyism.  Cordier mentions the visit of J. D. and Edith Bright.

37.   12 July 1954 – Copy of letter from Schwalm to Cordier – reflections on the international situation and Cordier’s letter of 8 July 1954.

38.   9 November 1954  - Cordier to Schwalm with $100 check for 1954 Century Club membership. Newsy letter about trip to San Francisco regarding their invitation to held 1955 General Assembly in the city.  Cordier mentions who he dined with and what football game he attended.

39.   28 March 1955 – Copy of letter from Schwalm to Cordier -  permission to use Cordier’ s name as the Honorary Chairman of the Campaign organization.

40.   29 April 1955 copy of Cordier’s letter to Mrs. Oppenheim regarding the formation of the establishment of an Isaac and Eta Oppenheim Chair of Mathematics.

41.   29 April 1955 letter from Cordier to Schwalm regarding Cordier’s letter to Etta thanking her for the establishment of the Oppenheim Chair of Mathematics.

42.   30 July 1955 Copy of letter from Schwalm to Cordier regarding their trip from New York to Harold Pletcher’s, to Ira Moomaw’s, Pennsylvania, Juniata, and Bedford Springs.  Mention of Ira Frantz.  Schwalm’s had been royally entertained by the Schwalm’s while staying in New York.

43.   3 August 1955 - Newspaper article outlining Cordier’s life and family, “The Sun,” Springfield, Ohio, 3 August 1955 – “Former Farm Boy From Stark County Hold United Nations Seat of Honor.”

44.   16 August 1955 Cordier to Schwalm – Cordier’s response to Schwalm’s letter of 30 July 1955. Cordier writes of the improvement in the world situation.  He talks about the United Nations and the Secretary General’s trip to Peking resulting in the release of the fifteen fliers and to the possible release of other prisoners. There is more news as Cordier mentions a historic conference at Geneva about the peaceful uses of atomic energy which “dramatizes the ushering in of the atomic age - and preparations for the General Assembly in Geneva.

45.   18 November 1955 – Copy of Schwalm’s letter to Cordier. Schwalm talks about his resignation in September.  He speaks of Bob Stauffer’s communications with Cordier.  Was their talk about Cordier taking over Schwalm’s position?

46.   8 December 1955 – PERSONAL - Cordier to Schwalm discussing the meaning of retirement and obliquely talks of communication with Bob Stauffer – and it appears to very politely decline the invitation to fulfill the presidency at Manchester because of the profound work being done at the U.N. Cordier describes his work with the Secretary-General and talks about various countries and behind-the-scenes issues and struggles at the U.N.

47.   21 January 1956 – Copy of Schwalm’s letter to Cordier asking if he might suggest  replacement for Gladdys Muir upon her retirement?

48.   27 January 1956 – Cordier to Schwalm – Cordier is unaware of a candidate who might fill Muir’s position. He speaks of Sherwood Cordier, Stephen Blickenstaff, and Sherwood Eddy.

49.   1 February 1956 – Copy of Schwalm letter to Cordier – regarding Clarence O. Eyer.

50.   6 February 1956 – Copy of Schwalm letter to Cordier regarding Frank Graham.  He mentions Dr. Keim and the funeral of Murl Barnhart.

51.   17 May 1956 – Cordier to Schwalm – attached to 22 May 1956 – Schwalm to Cordier.

17 May 1956 regarding a set of sixteen volumes of books on the United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy that was held in Geneva in August 1955.  Cordier offers to give this set to the College as a gift, unless Dr. Morris already has some or all of them.

22 May 1956 – Morris does not have the volumes but is very eager to receive them.

52.   5 June 1956 Copy of Schwalm’s letter to Cordier – that includes Cordier’s splendid gift to the “March of Progress.”  The set of books, “Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy,” was received.

53.   15 August 1956 – Copy of Schwalm letter to Cordier – mentioning Cordier’s special mission to help with the negotiations on the Suez situation and Nasser’s closing of the canal.  Schwalm talks about the Democratic National Convention that is in session. He explains how “Truman has been acting up in the Convention.  He is doing the best he can to turn the Convention from Stephenson to Harriman.” He goes on to say, “There certainly is a lot of loose talk and horse play at a National Convention.  Television may ultimately kill these Conventions as they are now carried on.” He writes that ”Helman is on the job and I am staying away from the office,”  and states the death of Will Smith.  Other individuals are mentioned that each man knows; Fred Replogle, Paul Heaton, Clemmy Miller, Edson Ulrey.  Schwalm follows up with a description of the closing of the Democratic convention. 

54.   24 October 1956 – Copier of Schwalm’s letter to Cordier regarding the world situation including events with the Suez Canal, the Israeli-Arab problem, Poland, and Russia.  He also talks of the upcoming presidential election.  Schwalm is teaching courses in History and Government at Indiana Central College. “I am really enthusiastic about getting back to study about Crasmus, Luther, Qwingli, Calvin and others.  It reminds me of 30 to 40 years ago at Manchester – I’m not so young and supple!

55.   29 November 1956 – Cordier to Schwalm – a 5 page letter – Cordier describes the work of the Secretary – General, Hammarskjold, “He (Hammarskjold) literally stood between humanity and World War III.”  Cordier talks of Eisenhower’s position on Israel and election as president.  Cordier details his involvement with behind-the scenes negotiations. He describes his personal work with the Secretary-General as they negotiate with the United States, Britain, France, Israel, and Egypt.

56.   11 December 1956 – Copy of Schwalm letter to Cordier- “Your letter was one of the most exciting ones I have ever gotten from you.  I knew that significant things were happening in the U.N. which would deeply involve you.  I thank you very sincerely for the close-up you have given us of some of the happenings.”  Schwalm continues to give personal reflections regarding Israel, Egypt, France, England, Nasser, Hungary, Russia, and President Eisenhower.  Schwalm writes about his upcoming trip to Europe and Nigeria.

57.   30 January 1957 – Copy of Schwalm letter to Cordier. There is a reference to a letter from Cordier (missing).  Vernon Schwalm and wife, Florence, are to set sail on 15 February 1957. Schwalm writes of the work of the United Nations  and goes on to detail his thoughts on international conflicts of the day that include the Eisenhower policy statement, Nasser, the Suez bridge, Dulles, the near east, Nehru, the Soviet Union, communism vs. democracy, North Africa and Southern Asia.  “I was very much interested in your report of your talk with Nasser.” He closes with a personal note, “Mrs. Reber was buried today.  It was a cold icy day to lay away a friend.”

58.   29 May 1957 – Cordier to Schwalm – thanks for letter of 22 May (missing) – confirming arrangements for visit following Schwalm trip.  “We have read your articles in the News Journal with great interest.” [Note: This would indicate that the Cordiers’ received papers from North Manchester while living in New York – keeping ties to Wabash County, friends at Manchester College,  and to the Church of the Brethren].  He shares information about a mutual friend, “J. D. Bright.”

59.   18 July 1957 – Cordier to Schwalm – “I have had a few reports from the Annual Conference.  I was sorry that I was unable to attend.” Cordier describes the political situation in Africa, “Africa is the great remaining battlefield of colonialism versus independence, Asia having already fully emerged from a dependent status.  It therefore reflects on her soil such influence as may be left among the European colonial powers on the one side and the militant independence movement, whether indigenous in Africa or spearheaded by the new Asiatic States.  It is a fascinating movement to watch.  In ten or twenty years, the face of Africa will be radically different.”  Cordier talks of the condition of mutual friend, J. D. Bright through communications with Bryan Stoffer of Washburn University.  Cordier gives a schedule of events at the United Nations that Schwalm might be interested in attending, including the 11th session of the General Assembly with a five-day debate on the Hungarian question, the opening of the 12th session, and an address by Queen Elizabeth.

60.   23 October 1957 – Advance Press Release – not to be made public before 12:30 PM (EDT) Thursday 24 October 1957 – Address by Andrew Cordier, Executive Assistant to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, at the luncheon given by the City of Philadelphia in commemoration of the 275th anniversary of the landing of William Penn and the 12th Anniversary of the United Nations, 24 October 1957 – 9 page document.

61.   2 December 1957 - Address by Andrew Cordier, Executive Assistant to the Secretary-General of the United Nations at the parliamentary Dinner in honor of the Honorable Lester B. Pearson, Ottawa, – 10 page document.

62.   27 December 1957 – Cordier to Schwalm – a reflection of the year, 1957.

63.   26 April 1958 – Cordier to Schwalm – refers to Schwalm’s letter of 4 February 1958 (missing).  He writes that “Mr. Hammarskjold is spending the week-end at his country home and Dorothy (Cordier’s wife) is with you in North Manchester.  I would enjoy being with her.  She has had her usual very pleasant spring trip to Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana.  She spends a fortnight with my father and sister.  I think it does them a great deal of good.” Cordier goes on to describe the exceedingly heavy, but fascinating, work at the United Nations.  He talks about the Middle East, disarmament, the headlong arms competition of the two Great Powers – “A miscalculation by a single pilot could set off World War III and that pilot alone would carry in his plane bombs more devastating than all the bombs carried by all the planes of both the United States and Britain during the whole of World War II.”  Cordier gives an opinion about the work of “Dulles” and speaks of establishing an Economic Commission for Africa. Dag Hammarskjold completed his first term of office and began his second five year term and Cordier talks shares his involvement in the process. “Monday he and I are having op leaders of the Hearst press to lunch at his (Dag’s) apartment.  William Randolph Hearst, one of our very warm personal friends, will be present.  When one considers the attitude of the Hearst press some years ago and that they are now very warm supporters of the UN and of the international effort generally, it is very gratifying.” Cordier regrets not being able to attend the Church of the Brethren Annual Conference.

64.   6 May 1958 – Schwalm to Cordier – Besides personal reflections he writes of Khrushchev and Dulles and family matters.

65.   27 August 1958 Cordier to Schwalm – Cordier describes the effect that the tragic death of his daughter’s (Louise) husband (Peter Collins, British Formula One Racecar driver) had upon the family.  He also writes of the KLM accident* that killed the Stinebaughs and Robert Zigler’s** accident with injuries that would hospitalize him for weeks.

*A KLM plane went down over the Atlantic Ocean.  It had contained many Church of the Brethren members (that had made a visit to Schwarzenau, Germany?)

**Robert Zigler was in an accident in England? that killed his wife – the archivist’s father thinks Zigler got confused with the lane change?

Cordier also speaks of events in the Middle East.  He describes Dag Hammarskjold, “He has reached a level of statesmanship for which I do not find a parallel in my lifetime.  He combines a ruggedness of character and an exceptional integrity with a diplomatic resourcefulness which certainly has no parallel today, or indeed in recent decades.” Cordier goes on regarding Dag , a premonition of things to come? – “One of the regrettable facts of his prestige is that it has now become much too common a pattern to turn all world problems over to him.”

Cordier talks about the Bang-Jensen case and the editorials of Eugene Pulliam.  He speaks of the passing of Mrs. A. R. (Reber?) – “She was a fine friend and neighbor.”

66.   24 October 1958 – Cordier to Schwalm regarding Cordier’s talk at Indiana Central College and hopes to visit North Manchester.

67.   31 January 1959 – Cordier to Schwalm – with description of the physical ailments of their wives. He writes of Schwalm, “You seem to be having a very busy and interesting time in Fort Wayne.  The combination of teaching and your advisory work with Indiana Tech seems to be a good one.” Cordier talks about being interviewed by the Ft. Wayne radio station (WOWO) who came to New York for an interview. About the U.N. – “I have been in charge of the Organization for a month during the period from December 18th.  Mr. Hammarskjold went to the Middle East and to Africa on a very intensive official trip.  He visited eleven countries in twenty-one days.  We have more African responsibility as the years pass. “ … “Africa is full of problems as you know but we are trying to do our best to give them as much assistance as we can and, to the degree possible, a sense of direction toward positive and constructive goals.”  Cordier talks of Dag’s other visits, including the court of King Saud and to Prime Minister Ben-Gurion of Israel.  Cordier describes the religion and politics of Ben-Gurin, the condition of the Palestine refugees, the visit of Mikoyan, and the situation between Russia and the United States, Dulles and Eisenhower, the spread of communism vs. democracy.  There is a United Nations “Atoms for Peace” program.  Hammarskjold gave an address in the ceremony for the granting of the second Atoms for Peace award (de Hevesy) at Rockefeller Institute.  He describes Rockefeller Institute and mentions that John Hershey’s son is attending there at the moment. Cordier speaks of his daughter, Louise, as being back in England again after playing in the American cast of “Romanoff and Juliet.” Peter Ustinoff (author and lead) and wife, Suzanne Ustinoff – “… were wonderful to her.  In fact, the three of them almost lived together during the four month period.”

68.   17 April 1959 – Address by Cordier – Jenkins Lecture Delivered by Dr. Andrew W. Cordier, Executive Assistant to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, at George Williams College, Chicago, Illinois, at 8:00 P.M.  The Forces Contending for the Kinds of Youth in the World Today - “Sometimes young people of great promise turn out badly in their later years, while others of lesser promise become great instruments of influence in adulthood.” – was this a reflection upon his personal experience as perhaps a good but not gifted student – more research is needed about Cordier’s promise when a student? Cordier goes on to talk about the nuclear arms race, the sciences in education, etc. (19 pages – final page(s) missing?

69.   27 May 1959 – Cordier to Schwalm regarding event at University of Chicago, “When I spoke at the George Williams College on 17 April the University of Chicago History Faculty asked me to meet with them informally prior to the event.  It was a most pleasant and very nostalgic occasion.  The first part of our conversation ran back to the days when we were in the University.  Thirty-three years have passed since then and the present history faculty consists of our fellow students or their juniors.  One of them said he was a Fort Wayne boy and he used to hear about me when his Mother came home from the Women’s Club reporting on my lectures.  Time keeps passing and we cannot seem to stop the clock.” Schwalm refers to the lecture of 17 April (#68 above). He mentions Dorothy visiting Louise in London and that Louise is a permanent panelist on the BBC “What’s My Line.” Refers to upcoming visit with the Schwalms.

70.   19 June 1959 – Cordier Address – Spiritual Resources in an Anxious World – Delivered to the Church of the Brethren Annual Conference, 1959.  Excerpts follow: “A year ago this week I was in Jerusalem as a special representative of the Secretary General to engage in an inspection of the Mount of Olives, the Garden of Gethesemane, mount Scopus, the great areas of Biblical fame and lore on the Jordan site of Jerusalem, and to engage further in the tough negotiations between the Israelis on the one side and Arabs on the other…..” “But here it is, the claims of three great religions for the same territory and claims which are being fought out by two of them sometimes in violence and in blood.”….”In this kind of a setting one observes the conflict that exists in the world generally.  It is not very much unlike the types of contention you observe on a broad scale between the East and the West, between the parties of the cold war, the historical traditions that still stand as in impediment to understanding of the West on the one side and of Africa and Asia on the other.  These are barriers and they are profound barriers.”…”In this anxious world of which we are a part there are certain kinds of emotional devices and elements which we must try to eliminate from our lives.  One of them is anger. “…. “We have spent much more time on the philosophy of giving in the Western World than we have on the problems of receiving.  One of the problems we are running into in the African-Asian states is just that. ‘It is,’ said one prime minister recently, ‘very difficult for us to receive.  Receiving has been associated too often historically with the ignominy of weakness, of helplessness and even of inferiority.’ Now with a sudden surge of revolution a billion people in the world are saying we are not inferior, we are your equals, and they produce with wisdom, they have the knowledge, they have the common sense that can be contributed to the West.”…

71.   30 September 1959 – Copy f Schwalm’s letter to Cordier – Regarding Khrushchev – “I saw him read part of his disarmament speech for the United Nations and saw you on the stage.  I couldn’t tell whether you were bored or inspired.”  Schwalm also stated his interested his interest in the Laos situation.  “We, of course, are never aware here of the amount of work which goes on behind the scenes and in which you are unusually involved.  I appreciate very much what you have done for the cause of peace and understanding and the persistence with which you have followed your early convictions.” He also reports on family and Manchester College.

72.   10 December 1959 – Copy of Schwalm’s letter to Cordier. Would Cordier speak at the Fort Wayne Rotary sponsored “international Relationship Night” and the dinner meeting of the Council of Churches?  Cordier might also speak at Manchester College at that time? Schwalm is completing his writing on A. C. Wieand. He mentions Dr. Bolinger, now hospitalized.


Cordier File D - Schwalm and Cordier Correspondence:  1960 – 1962

1.       11 January 1961 – Cordier to Schwalm – 6 page letter describing events in the United Nations including Belgan activity in the Congo, the Russians, the French, South Africa, Khrushchev’s orders, the American delegation, Ambassador Wadsworth, President Boland, of Ireland, Zorin, with mention of Castro, Lumumba, Kasa-Vubu, Mobutu, Ileo.  Cordier outlines political maneuvers and historical events as they have taken place.  He comments on Kennedy winning  the Presidency and comments on Kennedy’s brother being appointed as Attorney-General. He reports on a conversation with Dean Rusk. He also mentions Ralph Bunche and Adlai Stevenson – “I invited him (Stevenson) to lunch several weeks ago to talk over his new responsibilities.  He will keep quite a few of the younger men of the delegation but will change all of the people on the top.”  Cordier goes on to say that, “Tomorrow I have Walter Lippman to lunch here at the office.  It is always a pleasure to discuss national and world matters with him.” Cordier closes by talking about the Manchester College “March of Progress” campaign and about Schwalm’s personal life, “You seem to be involved in responsibilities at Indiana Technical College and elsewhere comparable to the years of your college presidency.”

2.       18 January 1960 – Cordier to Schwalm – “I do not have a schedule of honoraria for addresses.  Whatever the Fort Wayne people decide upon will be perfectly satisfactory.”

3.       1 February 1960 – Schwalm to Cordier – regarding publicity material sent from Cordier’s office and arrangements for Cordier’s upcoming appearance in Fort Wayne and Manchester College.

4.       10 February 1960 – Cordier to Schwalm regarding arrangements for upcoming series of appearances.  Dorothy (Cordier’s wife) will accompany him.

5.       14 March 1960 Cordier to Schwalm – accepting dinner invitation.

6.       27 Marcy 1960 – Copy of letter from Schwalm to Cordier – thanking Cordier for his most favorable appearances in Fort Wayne and North Manchester.  “I heard three of your four formal lectures and would say they were all tops.” Schwalm talks about finances in regard to Cordier’s trip.

7.       4 April 1960 – Cordier to Schwalm - deferring credit to the nice things Schwalm said about lectures to the nature of the audiences. He talks about Schwalm’s projects, “You are preeminently fitted to give Indiana Technical College the kind of advice and direction it needs to secure accreditation.  Furthermore your own contact with the North Central  Association represent a further asset to the College in realizing its objective.” Cordier outlines the money he received for his appearance in Indiana and encloses a $100 check for the North Manchester Rotary Club, “…which I hope they will see fit to give to the development of Warvel Park.” He goes on to describe the South African problem, “…No county in the world is so determined to follow a racist policy as is South Africa…”  “The independence movement of Africa as a whole is bound to have its repercussions in South Africa.”

8.       12 April 1960 – Cordier to Schwalm – Cordier tries to distribute checks back to the community.

9.       19 April 1960 – Draft? Or copy? – of Schwalm to Cordier – regarding the three checks.

10.   15 September (no year) – handwritten draft of letter from Schwalm to Cordier.  “Your account of your responsibility in the Congo has made us almost gasp with astonishment, with wonder – and with pride.  It seems to me, from your account, and according to reports in the press that your policies have been remarkably successful.  I think you put your confidence on the right man or men.” – Schwalm continues mentioning Lumumba, and Khrushchev and his men, and the influence of the communist leaders.

11.   30 May 1960 – Cordier to Schwalm –  3 page letter – Regarding the 1960, U-2 incident. Cordier talks about Washington, the behavior of Khrushchev, the important role of the United Nations. “…Progress toward peace has been given a cruel blow.  Further deterioration in all sorts of unexpected ways will undoubtedly take place.  The risk of general war is much more likely…”  He tells how Washington “bungled” the case and goes on to point out the lack of coordination between the State Department, the Pentagon, the Central Intelligence Agency and the White House.  Following a lengthy discourse he talks about vacationing with his wife, Dorothy, while visiting Louise in London.  “The Doctor found me in very good health except suffering from what he called ‘combat fatigue.’” Cordier also has an eye on Manchester, “Manchester College had its commencement today.  I was glad that they granted David Blickenstaff an honorary degree.”

12.   5 June 1960 – Handwritten first page draft of letter from Schwalm to Cordier – “As I remember American History, I feel our position in the world is about as bad as it can be, or has ever been.  The Cuban situation, it seems to me should have been dealt with in a conciliatory and firm way.  It has deteriorated into a disgraceful situation…” Schwalm also talks of Japan, Korea, and Turkey.  “It certainly puts America into a defensive position because of the U2, and give the U.S.S.R. a tremendous advantage with neutral nations….”

13.   18 August 1960 – Cordier to Schwalm – 9 page letter regarding the Congo problem.  He talks about Mr. Lumumba, the Prime Minister and describes the situation with the Belgians, the Congolese, the efforts of Dag Hammarskjold, Ralph Bunche.  Cordier refers to some Ghana troops under U.N. command and the President of Ghana, Nkrumah, and describes Nkrumah’s goals to increase his sway over Central Africa. This is a behind-the-scenes, blow-by-blow account of the efforts of the United Nations to deal with the situation there.  Cordier goes on to describe warm exchanges between Hammarskjold and Haile Selassie as Hammarskjold deals with the African situation and talks about events that will unfold in the future. “…All these Lumumba explosions are taking place while the Congolese people continue to suffer.  Happily Belgian neglect over the years has been counterbalanced by the selfless devotion of Catholic and Protestant missionaries. The National Council of Churches presented me with a full report on all Protestant activities in the Congo.  It is quite impressive in terms of the number of doctors and nurses, the number of patients treated, as well as the number of children who have had some opportunity for education through mission schools…”   “This letter has become somewhat long but I thought you might be interested in getting a fairly full picture of this crisis.”

14.   6 September 1960 – letter from Doreen Geary, Cordier’s assistant. “Further to mr. Cordier’s letter to you of 18 August and in his absence in the Congo I am enclosing the following which he had intended sending you before his departure: 

·         Additions to the first and second reports of the Secretary-General showing strength and deployment of the UN Force in the Congo up to 19 August.

·         Statements made by the Secretary-General at the Security Council meetings of 13 July, 8-9 August and 21 August.

·         Record of conversation between Prime Minister Lumumba and Andrew W. Cordier, UN Hq., New York, 1 August.

These three documents are included.

15.   15 September 1960 – Cordier to Schwalm – 6 page letter telling the story of his trip to Leopoldville, Congo in minute detail.  He closes, “In thinking back over my Leopoldville experience I note that in the hours before the crisis and continuing beyond its beginning I worked 45 hours straight at lightning speed; then slept for 3 hours and worked 21 more hours.”

16.   3 October 1960 – Cordier to Schwalm – 4 page letter beginning, “We have now had two weeks of the fifteenth session of the General Assembly with an atmosphere of continuing crisis and tension.  Khrushchev has carried his battle from one extreme to another and the heaviest attack by him on the Secretary-General came this morning in which he virtually demanded the resignation of the Secretary-General…”  - “They now accuse us of being responsible for the bloody conflict in the Congo which is the complete reversal of the truth…” Cordier talks about the response of Prime Minister Nehru of India, President Sukarno of Indonesia, President Nasser of the united Arab Republic and President Nkruman of Ghana and how the Russians had influenced their thoughts on Ghana and the role of the Secretary-General Hammarskjold in the Ghanan crisis.  “Nehru’s argument, it became clear, was that if concessions were not made to solve the rift between the Soviet Union and the secretary-General the Organization (U.N.) would be ruined. “The world has clearly fallen into a profound crisis and I feel it necessary, psychologically, to guard myself against the odor of atomic and hydrogen bombs and of dying masses.” – “While the public image is one of a complete break between the Russians and ourselves, yet curious, behind-the-scenes relationships continue.  The Russians have come to me repeatedly on all types of organizational problems.  This afternoon, the Secretary-General, after his strong reply to Khrushchev, had a long meeting with Tito.  Tomorrow evening all of us are invited to the reception given by Khrushchev.  We are strongly advised by some of the wisest heads in the Assembly to attend, although you can naturally understand our reluctance to do so.”  - Cordier speaks of a gathering with the United Arab Republic Delegation at the home of the Secretary-General.  After an afternoon session with Tito, …”Nasser, of the five who participated in the compromise, had a better understanding of what really happened in the Congo than any of the others. Perhaps part of this is due to the fact that Egypt and Ghana are carrying on a kind of little cold war in the Congo between themselves, adding to the rest of the confusion that exists there.” ---“On Sunday Nasser invited the Secretary-General and me to his home at Sands point.  We had a further thorough discussion of the whole Congo situation and of some approaches that might be made to improve it.” ---“This gives you something of a thumbnail sketch of developments during the last fortnight and certainly the weeks ahead do not promise much improvement.”

17.   7 October 1960 – Draft of Schwalm letter to Cordier – responding to Cordier’s 3 October 1960 letter. “It would seem to me that both Macmillan and Eisenhour should be gotten into N.Y. to use their own persuasive powers to offset the influence of Khrushchev.” ---“We are continuing to be with you in spirit and wish we could be with you in body during the next day or two.  We know you are fighting a hard fight against most discouraging odds.  We shall continue to think of you daily and pray earnestly that something may be done for the peace of the world.”

18.   21 October 1960 – Cordier to Schwalm – 5 page letter - Cordier describes the speeches of Khrushchev and describes some of the proceedings – “The table pounding of the Communist group became almost uncontrollable, especially wwhen Khrushchev took off his shoe and used it to add increased din to the sound of their pounding. “ Cordier writes of Mezincescu of Romania “Mezincescu spoke with such heat, with added clamor on the part of the Communist delegates, that the President (of the meeting) and I agreed to adjourn the meeting.  However, in adjourning, the President (of the meeting) had to use the gavel with such force that he broke it.  Thus the shoe and the broken gavel are the symbols of Khrushchev’s worst contribution to a peaceful Assembly.” Cordier goes on to describe Khrushchev’s personality and his ability to start World War III.  “Furthermore, the case that they are building up against the West knows no bounds.  The four major issues at which they are pounding away are disarmament, colonialism, the Secretariat and the Congo.  It is like four hurricanes that come together to form one large one.” Cordier elaborates on the techniques of the Communists and the Secretary-General’s reply to the Communist attacks and what is projected for the future.  Cordier explains the continuing Belgian interest in the Congo, with support from the French.  There is hope that the Americans will not support such an effort. “As you see, it is not an easy task to proceed with our constructive program in the Congo, while at the same time taking all the necessary measures to keep selfish national interests from establishing themselves there.  The smell of uranium and the other rich resources of the country seems too inviting for them.” Cordier states that the UN is making an effort “to keep the government services in operation and to contribute to the welfare of the Congolese people,” and describes the situation in Leopoldville.  He closes with the sentence, “I am glad that the college had a good homecoming occasion.”

19.   24 October 1960 – Copy of Schwalm letter to Cordier – a newsy letter describing Schwalm’s trip to McPherson College to dedicate two new building, etc.  “Mrs. Schwalm went with me and we traveled by train.  It was a great weekend from the point of view of meeting old friends and reviving old acquaintances.”  He talked about a trip to Chicago conferring with North Central Association offices.  Schwalm then refers to Cordier’s last letter and details his personal opinions about international political situations. He closes, “With best wishes to you and the hope that some encouragement may come to you out of this tangled situation.”

20.   1 February 1961 – Cordier to Schwalm – 3 page letter – “The general picture with regard to the Congo – and Laos for that matter – continues to change but in the general direction of deterioration.”  --- “Perhaps the most hopeful development of the last two weeks has been the more positive policy taken by Washington on the Congo crisis.  Our personal contact with Dean Rusk and the meeting that Dag had with Kennedy have been very helpful.  In addition we have had long meetings with Adlai Stevenson during this last week…..” Cordier describes what the U.S. policy will be and outlines events taking place in the Congo and the ramifications surrounding the imprisonment of Lumumba.  He ends the letter, “I hope that you are having a good winter.  “Weatherwise we have been having a rather cold one but I rather enjoy it.  With warm regards.  Very sincerely yours, Andrew W. Cordier.”

21.   20 February 1961 - COPY – PERSONAL AND CONFIDENTIAL –letter to Per Lind, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Stockholm, Sweden from Andrew Cordier – Cordier explains the torturous pressure being placed upon Dag to resign and invites Lind to New York to boost Hammarskjold’s mental and psychological well-being.

22.   Attached to 20 February 1969 and 2 March 1969 correspondence – OUT OF SEQUENCE – SEE #31 – should be with later letters - UNITED NATIONS Press Services, For use of information media –not an official record – Press Release 26 June 1961- CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN SECRETARY-GENERAL DAG HAMMARSKJOLD AND ANDREW W. CORDIER, EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT TO THE SECRETARY-GENERAL – Letter Date 19 June from the Secretary-General to Mr. Cordier  - and Cordier’s response – Letter dated 26 June from Mr. Cordier to the Secretary –General.  These letters describe Cordier’s invaluable work and a shift in position.

23.   2 March 1961 – COPY – PERSONAL AND CONFIDENTIAL – From Per Lind to Andrew Cordier – response to letter of 20 February 1969 – Per is coming to New York.

24.   25 February 1961 – Cordier to Schwalm- 5 page letter  – “I fear I write you now in a rather deeper state of gloom than that registered by any of my previous letters.  The situation here at the United Nations and in the world generally is rapidly deteriorating..  The death of Lumumba and his two associates which was announced on 13 February was the beginning of a new phase in the world picture.”  Cordier goes on to detail the ramification of this event including the Russian campaign against the Secretary-General, Dag Hammarskjold.  “The vitriolic attach upon Dag knows no bounds.  He is frequently charged outright as the murderer of Lumumba and this vile charge is often embroidered by Communist spokesmen with languages of the most violent kind. The demonstration that took place in the public gallery of the Security Council Chamber was alarming.  As soon as it started I rushed from my chair behind Dag to the gallery and took personal charge of our efforts to expel them and to return the situation to calm.  Cordier tells the story of about 25 people from Harlem rushing into the gallery, joining about 25 who had taken seats.  “Our guards put up a valiant fight against these would-be assassins and finally drove them from the Chamber…..Through some means they had been worked up into a wild rage and the women among them were swinging chains, pocket books filled with stones, and so forth.  Eighteen of our guards had to go to our Clinic for first aid attention.” Cordier explains how he made security arrangements for Dag in defense of future assassination attempts. He does not know how serious the intentions were behind this assault. “The important aspect of these developments, however, is the virulence of the Soviet attack on Dag which encourages these extremist groups.” He mentions the influence of Zorin.  “The second round of executions that took place at Bakwanga and announced a few days after the announcement of the execution of Lumumba only added to the rage of the Russians.  Their formula is very simple.  The United Nations is in the Congo.  The executions took place there so the Secretary-General must be responsible.”  He gives information about about the resolution of the Securitiy Council on February 21 and mentions a series of meetings the Secretary-General is having with his Advisory Committee on the Congo. “Dean Rusk is coming to New York tomorrow and likely we shall be able to have an exchange of views on the crisis.”  Cordier talks about the effect that the empowerment of Gizenga in the Congo would have on the political scene and in the UN. Cordier describes the personality of Gizenga.  Cordier closes, “I was glad to have the plans of Indiana Technical College.  It appears that they will have a campus with an excellent group of buildings when the plan materializes.  The financial support seems very strong.  We were sorry to hear of the new distress of Mrs. Schwalm with arthritis.  With warm regards.”

25.   10 March 1961 – Copy of Schwalm’s letter to Cordier – Schwalm shares his opinions of world events and then writes, “I hope Kennedy’s Peace Corps will be able to do some good, but unfortunately they are so late. Opponents will interpret them, I fear, as a defensive measure, while they should have started about the time you folks in our Church started Brethren Service, and Alternative Service.  Some of us were not awake to this need at that time, I’m sorry to say.” [NOTE – QUESTION – Does this mean that Cordier help to initiate Brethren Service and Alternative Service?]. Schwalm speaks about the visit of Ralph Bunche to Manchester.  He gives an update on R. H. Miller and the death of Dave Horming, and shares ,“A Mr. Essig – one of the foremen at Farnsworth, who is Franci Garr’s boss – was instantly killed Sunday in Fort Wayne in an auto accident at Washington and Anthony Blvds.”

26.   22 April 1961 – Copy of Schwalm’s letter to Cordier – “Dr. Helman told me of his visit with you, and of the splendid dinner you put on at the United Nations for th Alumni.  He said the attendance and the spirit was fine. [see Letter #27]” Schwalm talks about Kennedy’s Press Conference regarding the Cuban invasion and Schwalm’s personal reflections.  He goes on to report on his health and that of Mrs. Schwalm’s and reports that Kermit Eby, Jr. winning a scholarship from the Ford Foundation to go on to prepare to become a school administrator.

27.   29 April 1961 – Cordier to Schwalm – 6 page letter – Cordier sends a detailed letter that includes the bitter attack of the Secretary-General by Gromyko, the Soviet Foreign Minister and Cordier’s response: “On the day following the speech I expressed by revulsion against the Gromyko speech to the Soviet Under-Secretary here, Georgy Arkadev.  President Boland was a witness to my statement.  As Arkadev shook hands with me I replied, ‘Well Georgy,’ calling him by his first name, ‘What I am about to say does not apply to you but I must say that Gromyko’s speech yesterday morning was the most despicable statement ever made in the United Nations…I have nothing but contempt for the complete falsifications which he would have liked his hearers to believe were facts and truth.  Furthermore, Georgy, I believe that there must be an electronic brain in Moscow because I do not believe that ordinary human beings could invent all the lies and falsehood that Soviet spokesmen here are asked to present in their speeches.’ “  Cordier goes on to describe the Congo situation, the failure to oust the Secretary-General, the refusal of the Dag’s enemies to be cooperative, the growth of pro-Communist trends in Laos, the American debacle in Cuba, the riots in Venezuela, and the rise of Communism throughout the world. He describes the American story in Cuba and Kennedy’s mistake of depending too much on the findings and judgment of the CIA – going on about this in great detail.  He observes that “…the Cuban Army is now the strongest one of all the Latin American countries…”  Cordier describes the role of Adlai Stevenson in the Cuban trouble and writes, “I have dinner with him (Adlai) Monday night alone.  I am sure one of the big subjects for the evening will be Cuba.”  Cordier describes Dag’s opinion of Kennedy following a luncheon with Kennedy at Stevenson’s apartment.  He writes friendly news to Schwalm including plans to visit in the summer, acknowledges the success of Kermit Eby, Jr., and closes, “Dorothy and I were happy to have the alumni of this area as our luncheon guests here at the UN on April fifteenth.  There were sixty-five present. We were pleased to have Dr. Helman and Mr. Christie for the occasion.  I think it added considerable renewal of interest in Manchester and I hope it will help the financial campaign.  With warm regards.  Very sincerely yours,”

28.   22 May 1961 – Copy of Schwalm letter to Cordier – Schwalm writes of work at Indiana Technical College and his work to establish the Home for the Aged (Timbercrest).  He talks of the weather, crops, the closing of schools for the year.  At Manchester Colelge, Morris and W. s. Barnhart are retiring.  Miss Kolmer, the dietitian, and Mrs. Wilson, a housemother, are being married.”  He also speaks of the “Cuban invasion” and President Kennedy’s response. He gives an update on Mrs. Schwalm’s arthritis and plans to skip Annual Conference.  “Mrs. Kintner is in the Elkhart hospital having undergone surgery yesterday for gall bladder trouble.”

29.   23 May 1961 – Copy of Cordier to Dag Hammarskjold – letter of resignation.

30.   24 June 1961 – Copy of Schwalm letter to Cordier regarding the international political situation and news from North Manchester. “We did not go to Conference this year, the first time in 38 years.  Florence’s arthritis would have made it difficult to get around at the Conference, and my driving is not good with bad eyes…You man have heard that Mr. Gotshall died last week, (Ilo’s father) as well as Carl Schubert…Fred Zimmerman’s son in Elkhart, also from a heart attach.  He was married to Harry Leedy’s daughter…”

31.    4 July 1961– 4 page letter from Cordier to Schwalm with an extremely detailed explanation as to why Cordier resigned his previous position.  “He (Dag) begged me to remain to the end of his term but I pointed out the arguments which I felt made sense from his point of view in dropping out of the picture at an early date.  There was a deep contradiction between his very sincere desire for me to stay on and the organizational requirements which now confront him.  Consequently some days later in London, when I was visiting Louise, I dispatched to him the letter, copy of which is enclosed….” Cordier continues to describe their lengthy conversations in detail, including the visit of Per Lind (Cordier refers to the copy of the letter that he sent to Per Lind and Lind’s reply [see #21 and #23 – now we know that Cordier sent this copy to Schwalm]. “The talk that evening at his home and several subsequent talks led to the exchange of letters which I enclose and which were released on the day of the press conference [#22  - Press Release]. “…beginning August 1st, I take up the new function as Under-Secretary for General  Assembly Affairs and will continue at least through the sixteenth session.  Narasimhan, an Indian, will take my place as Executive Assistant although the old title is now suppressed and he will be known as Chef du Cabinet.”  Cordier discusses the actual time of his leaving and the great number of messages from friends in Untied States and around the world reflecting sadness and regret at his departure. He speaks about his own feelings and prospects for future employment.  Cordier closes, “We were sorry to hear of the continuing suffering of Mrs. Schwalm from arthritis.  Dorothy had an almost miraculous change in her painful knee and foot trouble.  One day she was cleaning the attic and ran into a pair of flat shoes which our daughter-in-law had been wearing.  She put them on and in two days all of her pain was gone….Louise came from London last week and will be with us for several months this summer.  She and Dorothy are having a marvelous time together redecorating the house.  With very best wishes to both of you.”

32.   24 September 1961 – Copy of Schwalm letter to Cordier regarding political matters and the death of Hammarskjold. He laments, “Mother and I have both aged the last few years.  Frankly there were so many things that I had hoped to do yet.  I am very sorry that I am not almost fifty rather than approaching seventy-five next spring.  But that is life. Time marches on and we go along with it….”

33.   16 October 1961 – Copy of letter from Schwalm to Corder – “This picture of you appeared in our Indianapolis Star, Saturday.  We heard Zorin’s reference to the ‘U.S. Delegate.’ I assume he isn’t too happy to have them rely on you for information. I hope it will work out O.K.  C3

34.   3 November 1961 – Copy of letter from Schwalm to Cordier – The letter begins with the mention of a phone conversation between the two men.  “There come times in one’s life when big issues are in the making and it seems that is your situation now.”  Schwalm talks about himself and Cordier and their work. Cordier has evidently been made a job offer.

35.   1 December 1961 – Copy of Schwalm letter to Cordier – Schwalm talks of himself and Orville Sherman being in a car accident.  Charles Wells is speaking at the Church.  He speaks of the international scene, the town of North Manchester, and at the College, “The students are still up to their old pranks and some are having to suffer for them.” He mentions an upcoming trip to Florida.

36.   14 December 1961 – Copy of report issued by Cordier – “Important” is written by someone in the top margin of the first page [8 pgs. total].  It has been edited by hand (by Cordier?). It summarizes the discussion that took place in the Secretary-General’s Conference Room at 11;30 A.M., 14 December 1961 on the question of the Dag Hammarskjold Foundation.

37.   Booklet, entitled, “United States Committee of the Dag Hammarskjold Foundation.”  [See letter dated 10 January 1966, Folder E, #17]

38.   27 January 1962 – Cordier to Schwalm – “I am at the office and Dorothy has just read your letter from Sebring to me over the ‘phone.  I hasten to write you because another new offer has come to me during the last three days which has a treated allure than any other so far presented.” He goes on to describe the presentation and nature of the offer of the Deanship of the School of International Affairs of Columbia University.  He talks about another offer and his schedule at the UN, including events held in his honor.  Cordier consults the Swedes on the establishment of the Dag Hammarskjold Foundation and the settlement of Dag’s estate.  He concludes by talking about Schwalm’s work, Blair Helman’s illness, and attending a Manchester Alumni dinner in Detroit.  Cordier will also speak to the Ohio Pastors’ Convention where the Manchester Glee Club will provide music.  Then Cordier launches into describing a schedule with a wealth and breadth that boggles the mind! (HOW did these guys do it?)

39.   27 May 1962 – Handwritten letter from Cordier (Andrew and Dorothy) to Schwalm from the Hotel Lancaster, Paris.  “We were most sorry to hear of your kidney ailment and your operation.” --- “We have heard nothing these (two?) months about Kermit.  We do hope and pray that he has improved.”  --- “We have had a rather remarkable and certainly very profitable two months tour in 14 countries – an endless succession of receptions, luncheons and dinners in our honor by top government officials.  We have met hundreds of UN officials with …..” --- “We are saddened to hear of the continuing illness of Dr. Helman.  We hope the visit to may Clinic was helpful in the further treatment of his case.  I can imagine that it is most difficult for him to relax.”

40.   14 December 1962 – Cordier to Schwalm – 3 page letter in which Cordier describes his involvement in the Cuban missile crisis (October 1962) – (Rusk, 25 years later, made a public statement about the crisis and the role that Cordier was asked to play…more research is needed to see if the 2 stories are alike).  Cordier is now Dean of the School of International Affairs at Columbia University, New York City. Cordier talks about his work at Columbia, outside responsibilities, and efforts to raise money for the Dag Hammarskjold Foundation. “I regret that I had to cancel my Fort Wayne lectures.  I became heavily involved in the Cuban crisis the day before, that is, on October 24, and there was no alternative except to cancel.  Cordier goes on to detail his involvement and the role Rusk asked him to play.  He tells Schwalm “What I have said above is said in complete confidence and should never appear in the public press.” Cordier then makes descriptive marks in ink. He continues by saying that he is serving as Consultant to the Department of State engaged in a massive review of the personnel, budgets and programs of the UN and of the 51 other international organizations of which the U.S. is a member. He discusses the Chinese-Indian fighting.  Cordier ends, “I was sorry to hear that William Beahm is now in the hospital.” [This letter probably refers to File E, Letter #7].


Cordier File E - Schwalm and Cordier Correspondence and Various Other Materials:  1963-1970

Notes by David Waas: Valuable for a Cordier biography – Perspectives and ( ) centered role (?) interest in O H (?)


1.       22 July 1963 – Cordier to Schwalm – Cordier writes a brief eulogy to the life of Sadie Wampler and enclose a memorial check. Cordier reports on his year as Dean at Columbia.  He ends with friendly comments regarding Dorothy and her visit to North Manchester.

2.       31 October 1963 - News Office Columbia University for use 4 November regarding Cordier’s work at Columbia and plans to launch a fundraising campaign.

3.       16 December 1963 - handwritten letter from Schwalm to Cordier – Schwalm talks about a tragic autumn with the death of President Kennedy and continues to describe his thoughts and feelings.  He mentions an upcoming trip to see Sam Stone, Paul Studebaker, David Studebaker, and George Studebaker. They might also visit Florence’s sister, Mary Studebaker Lecrone (see letter #5).  He informs that Wayne Geissert was elected President of Bridgewater College. Schwalm includes deaths in Manchester and Middle Indiana: Walter Boyer, Delman Littlefield, Charles Oberlin and Mrs. Tom Shively.  He mentions that William Beahm is improved with the help of Dr. Curtis Bowman. He mentions the College (which one?) and a magnificent lecturer, Henry Commager.  Schwalm’s thoughts on DE Gaulle are explored as are subjects in international politics.

4.       21 Mary 1964 – Cordier letter to Schwalm with news of travel, the campaign, the Dag Hammarskjold Memorial Lecture Series, the Manchester College March of Progress, and visit by grandchildren and daughter.

5.       26 March 1964 – Draft of letter from Schwalm to Cordier detailing the Schwalms’ trip to the West Coast.  He once again talks about international politics, Khrushchev, DE Gaulle, fundraising, and states, “I wish I had never left teaching.  It is the most rewarding job I’ve undertaken.”  He goes on to list the deaths and illness among mutual friends. “Among the deaths that have taken place around here are Walter Boyer, Prof. J. E. Dotterer, Delmar Littlefield, Gorman Grossnickle, Fred Kurtz and now Robert Stauffer’s four-year old grandson.” Paul H. Bowman Sr. is seriously sick as is Mary Rowe, Don Rowe’s wife.  George Phillips had a second surgery.  Nettie Stoner Rose’s daughter, Mary Katherine, died.  A Blair is in Europe.

6.       13 July 1964 – Andrew Cordier President Lyndon B. Johnson – copy of letter expressing Cordier’s support.

7.       22 July 1964 – Cordier to Schwalm – with a report of his work at Columbia, the job of fundraising, and the delight of having Mrs. Maxine Domer (formerly of Manchester College) on staff as his special assistant. Cordier makes reference to members of Schwalm’s family and states, “With lengthening years energies diminish and it is good that you have cut down your program accordingly.”  Cordier likens Schwalm’s opinion of Goldwater to that of his own and gives his estimation of Goldwater as a politician.  Cordier also asks, “Incidentally, I seem to have lost or given away the last copy of the text that Dean Rusk asked me to use on October 24, 1962 in connection with the Cuban crisis.  I believe I sent you a copy.  Could you please write out a text of it and send it to me.  I would like to keep a copy in my files for possible use later on. (See File D, Letter #40). Cordier will ask Secretary of State Rusk to give three lectures under the auspices of the School which Cordier will publish in book form at the Columbia University Press. Cordier’s older brother dies and Dorothy is helping the family.  “It appears that I shall be a member of the Manchester College Board of Trustees beginning in October [1964].”  That will mean that I will come to Manchester College twice a year which will make it possible for me to keep in closer touch with you and other friends there.”

8.       16 October 1964 – Cordier to Schwalm.

9.       19 October 1964 – Handwritten draft of letter from Schwalm to Cordier – thanking Cordier for the lovely anniversary roses, etc.

10.   1 March 1965 – Cordier to Schwalm – personal letter regarding Schwalm’s recent hospitalization and hopes for recuperation.  Cordier reports on the $32,000,000 campaign for the School of International Affairs.

11.   23 March 1965 – Cordier to Schwalm – commenting on the health of the Schwalms’ and an upcoming trip to North Manchester for the Trustee Meeting. He reports on the campaign and then the world situation and on President Johnson’s speech on voting rights for Negroes. He briefly holds up Rusk and talks about the Vietnamese situation as “a sorry mess, and also full of dilemmas for us.” Cordier closes, “We were sorry to hear of the deaths of Ruth Petry, Glen McFadden and others.”

12.   24 May 1965 – Cordier to Schwalm – advising how to recuperate from an illness, then launches into telling about his personal work.

13.   24 August 1965.

14.   18 September – Cordier to Schwalm – apologizing for having to cancel visit to North Manchester.  Cordier goes on to spew his heavy schedule. One item includes, “I have just completed a paper at the request of President Johnson on ‘United States Policy in the United Nations.’ He wants it for his personal use in briefing ambassadors, members of Congress, and others.

15.   30 October 1965 – Draft of Schwalm letter to Cordier.

16.   4 December 1964 – Copy of Schwalm letter to Cordier saying it was thrilling to hear Cordier’s name on the television [Chet Huntley] saying you had recommended that the U.S. appropriate $25,000,000 to help cancel the U.N. debt.  Schwalm shares other news including the deaths of Mrs. Moyne Landis, Mrs. T. G. Weaver, Miss Lavon Garber.  Lloyd Blickenstaff is ill, as is Mrs. E. Paul Weaver and Mrs. Blair (Pat) Helman.  Raymond Peters will begin work at Manchester College 15 December 1965.

17.   10 January 1966 – Cordier to Schwalm – 2 pages of ? – A newsy, yet appreciative letter, “I have noted with deep appreciation what you have said about my work.  I feel that you are too modest as to the role that you played in my life.  In fact, I told Dorothy the other night that the five men who influenced my life most were A. J. Brumbaugh, Otho Winger, V. F. Schwalm, James Westfall Thompson and Dag Hammarskjold.”  Reverend Leo Malania is writing a Cordier biography with Wilder Foote and will be contacting Schwalm to appraise Cordier’s work and influence, etc.  Among other honors, Cordier received a personal letter from President Johnson thanking Cordier for his service.  He talks about sending a little booklet on the projects of the United States Committee of the Dag Hammarskjold Foundation (Folder D, #37].

18.   January 1966? – 3rd page of letter – Cordier to Schwalm mentioning President Johnson’ s peace offensive in Viet Nam and political observations – plans to attend Trustee Meeting at the end of March.

19.   14 February 1966 – Cordier to Schwalm regarding the Schwalms’ poor health and outline of Cordier’s heavy schedule and list of involvements and invitations, including an invitation from the Mayor of New York City – “he and his colleagues felt that my experience in international mediation and conciliation would help in this city crisis.”

20.   10 June 1966 – Cordier to Schwalm regarding Schwalm’s Illness and news of a trip made to Bethany Seminary and Elgin in which he mentions Norman Baugher.  He worries about the Brights in Topeka that were in the path of a tornado.

21.   2 August 1966 – Cordier to Schwalm – rejects proposal for R. Wagner to write about his life, and states Leo Malania and Wilder Foote will do so. [A book was never published.]

22.   26 October 1966 – Copy of letter from Schwalm to Cordier – and happy for “Steak House” dinner with Mrs. Helman and party on 10 October 1966. Mrs. Wilber Barnhart in Wabash Hospital. Report on Manchester College football team.

23.   13 March 1967 – Cordier to Schwalm with description of the Viet Nam War and report that Blair Helman has been in New York several times during the last several months. Plans to journey to North Manchester for Trustee Meeting.

24.   10 April 1967 – Cordier to Schwalm – best wishes on Schwalm’s 80th birthday.”…You have carved a great career in the building of institutions and the building of men.  Tens of thousands of students – and older people – have been influenced by you to live a more worthy life dedicated to life’s highest ends. “

“I expressed briefly in the Trustees’ meeting a week ago our appreciation for your work in building Manchester College, as well as my personal appreciation for what you have meant to me.  Our personal relationship now extends back over a period of 49 years to 1918.  In my college student years you were my best history teacher, indeed the best teacher I had in college.  It was then helpful to have had the advantage of living in your home at 5705 Ellis Avenue, while I was taking my MA work at the University of Chicago.  Again, it was an honor for me to take my Ph.D. degree beside you in December 1926.  You also performed our wedding ceremony on May 23, 1924.  You were Dean while I was a teacher at Manchester College, and later you were President while I continued in the same capacity.  Our associations were close and most meaningful.  I pay tribute to you as one who had a central influence in the making of my life and in the determination of my career….” [See #17].

25.   8 June 1967 – Schwalm to Maxine Domer, New York - announcing he had spent his 80th birthday in the hospital and sharing personal news.

26.   7 June 1967 – Schwalm to Cordier – 3 page letter of work, politics, the world situation and “home.” He mentions the illness of A. R. Eikenberry.

27.   29 April 1968 – Cordier to Schwalm – reporting on the meeting of the Board of Trustees at Manchester College and describing the crisis at Columbia University.  “The extremist students, who have occupied five buildings, are led by [    ], a college student who received his training in tactics in Cuba sometime ago….” Cordier to continues to give his opinion of this student and describes other factions fanning the fire.  “The presence of the students in the offices of the President and vice-President is particularly nauseating.  They have reproduced on the Xerox machine in the secretary’s office hundreds, if not thousands, of page of private papers and correspondence…….”  Cordier continues to describe the situation in detail.

28.   27 May 1969 – Cordier to Schwalm with detailed description of events at Columbia University and how the rebellious student leader was captured.  He also discusses the situation in Viet Nam and South Viet Nam.

29.   14 June 1969 – Cordier to Schwalm – page one of multi-paged letter – describing the commencement at Columbia that “had some curious angles.”  He mentions sending the Hofstadter address [#30] under separate cover. “What you saw on television was the regrettable mock commencement on the University campus.” Cordier goes on to describe events in more detail.

30.   4 June 1968 – Press Release – Partial text of remarks by Richard Hofstadter, De Witt Clinton Professor of American History at Columbia University, as Commencement speaker at the annual Commencement Exercises of the 214th Academic year, Columbia University, at 3:00 P.M., Tuesday, June 4, 1968, in the Cathedral Church of St. John the Divine.

31.   14 August 1968 – Copy of letter from Schwalm to Cordier that begins with his thoughts about the U.S. Presidential election.  At this point Schwalm has retired and is in questionable health.  He writes, “Sitting on the sidelines during the Republican Convention and the Church of the Brethren Annual Conference, plus the District meeting of middle Indiana, has given me a bad case of discouragement and pessimism.”  He describes the sources of his negative feelings, including the following about the church:

·         I am not interested that the church go back to the days of our father.  As one who grew up in the church and has lived and worked in it for more than 80 years, I do not want to repudiate all the values that the best leaders of the church lived and worked for and gave it their lives and best efforts.  Sure, they emphasized some secondary values, but their emphasis on peace, on the simple life, on industry, frugality, and integrity, and purity of life were of value, and these virtues still hold.  Their examples and teaching on the importance of the family were of value and God know they are needed now.

·         I am sorry I cannot do more than I now can do.  I regret to see some trends all around me that make my retirement a troubled one.  If this sounds depressing, it is no more so than are the events of the time – those which happen far from me and some nearer home.

·         I must close.  I wish I could spend some time with you.  Perhaps you could set me right.

32.   19 August 1968 – First Page of multi-paged letter from Cordier to Schwalm – who begins by talking about Schwalm’s residence at Timbercrest, sending regards to Ray and Annie Keim, and then begins to tell about the situation at Columbia.

33.   3 October 1968 – Cordier to Schwalm – “I am most grateful to you for the letters that I have received from you in recent weeks.  They are a source of real encouragement to me in my present difficult undertaking.” Cordier writes about the proceedings at Columbia and about becoming Acting president on 23 August 1968. “I have developed a policy which is constructive enough, dynamic enough, exciting enough and forward-looking enough to challenge and merit the support of the whole faculty and the entire student body.” Cordier continues to describe the effects of this policy.

34.   7 November 1968 – Office of Public Information, Columbia University – I.M. Pei & Partners, the architectural and planning firm, has been appointed planner for Columbia University, it was announced today.

35.   14 November 1968 – Office of Public Information, Columbia University – Closing remarks by Acting President Andrew W. Cordier at the Thirtieth Annual presentation of the Maria Moors Cabot Prizes, at a Convocation in the Rotunda of Low Memorial Library, Columbia University, Wednesday, November 13, 1968.

36.   19 January 1969 – Handwritten draft of letter from Schwalm to Cordier - I shall be greatly interested in the Conference on University Governance.  Please send me either some paper clippings or copies of speeches.  I am eager that things do not get entirely out of hand so that students without experience and with little superior knowledge shall come to too great power and to prevent this extremity, those now in power will have to give in sufficiently to students to let them be represented in the power structure in some way.  The San Francisco State College situation is tragic and should come to an early end.  We do not want to have dozens of other cases like it.  Every story of student strikes and riots makes me very unhappy.  After you left here [Manchester College] for the State Department in 1945 – when the soldiers from the armed forces and the C.P.S. came back so that student enrollment jumped from 390(?) in one year to (800?) or more – we came nearly having such an uprising.  I looked up the chapel speech that I made that year and the letters from the faculty that followed.  While it worked then, now the radicals are much more numerous and their demands more unreasonable.  I am sure – at almost 82 years of age, I would have no “stomach” for such a confrontation.

Schwalm then talks about Florence’s health and the health of many women “here.”  Pat Helman has been ill. Schwalm speaks of a family get-together:  He says he has only one brother left, Arthur (Arthur Schwalm).  His two sisters living are Nora Pletcher Agley (Nora Schwalm Pletcher Agley), and Mrs. George W. Phillips (Gertrude Phillips, Gertrude Schwalm Phillips).  Also visiting were: Elmer Eby (Kermit’s father), and Mrs. Wallace (formerly Mrs. Harvey Schwalm – Vernon’s second brother’s wife).  He mentions Dorothy Phillips as also visiting. 

37.   September 1969 – The Columbia Chronicle – 1968-69: A Successful year at Columbia.

38.   19 December 1969 – Columbia University in the City of New York, Investiture of Andrew Wellington Cordier as Fifteenth President of the University – Program – Order of Exercises.


39.   22 May 1970 – for use on Sunday 31 May 1970 – Office of Public Information – The commencement exercises of Columbia University’s 216th academic year will be held Tuesday (June 2). --- The principal commencement address will be delivered by the president of the University, Dr. Andrew W. Cordier.

40.   1 June 1970 – Office of information Services, 531 Mudd School of Engineering and Applied Science COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, New York: Two of the new engineers joining the American work force after graduation this June have an unusual distinction: they are not only female, which is somewhat of a rarity among the engineering fraternity, but they are also twin sisters.  -Linda and Laurie Hanneman, of Turner, Oregon.

41.   2 June 1970 – Office of Public Information Columbia University – Text of citation used by president Andrew W. Cordier in conferring the Nicholas Murray Butler Medal in Gold at the Columbia University Commencement Exercises at 3; P.M., Tuesday June 2, 1970. To William Van Orman Quine.

42.   2 June 1970 – Officer of Public Relations Columbia University – Former advertising executive Jess Cloud earned his bachelor’s degree today (Tuesday) summa cum laude from the Columbia University School of General Studies – at the age of 53.

43.   19 June 1970 – Cordier to Schwalm thanking him for the letter of 20 May 1970 and the delight it was for Dorothy and himself to have the recent visit with Schwalm at Timbercrest and to see Schwalm’s beautiful rose garden.  He describes the progress being made at Columbia and refers to the speech he made at Commencement – and is interested in Schwalm’s comments. He encloses a copy of his address and commencement program and an Annual Report for an academic year.  He closes by saying – John Baker’s party was very much appreciated.  It was a delight for me, and I was very deeply pleased by the honor implicit in the gathering of so many of my old friends and colleagues.  Particularly meaningful for me was Blair Helman’s presence, signifying in a tangible way my ties to Manchester which will always be a vital part of my life.

44.   Black and White photographs of Commencement Exercises at Columbia University that include Cordier as President, the honorary degree candidates, and several shots of the exercises [referenced in letter of 7 July 1970].

45.   7 July 1970 – Cordier to Schwalm – referring to letter of 28 June 1970 and hoping to hear Schwalm’s comments about Commencement speech and making reference to Schwalm’s initial reaction. Mention of photographs.

46.   20 July 1970 – Copy of Schwalm letter to Cordier commending on the photographs of the Columbia commencement.  “I understand that you plan to take up your work as Dean of the department of Foreign Affairs after you close your work as President. You have been most fortunate in the publicity that has gone out over the whole country regarding your work there.  You are to be congratulated.” – Schwalm mentions the Manchester student who died while experimenting with an elevator in the library.  Marlin Keeney of York, Penn.

47.    [undated]-[possibly 1 August 1970 – see #51 Cordier letter] - Re: 2 June 1970 Commencement Address – Draft of Schwalm letter to Cordier– It appears that letter should follow the letter of 20 July 1970?] – Schwalm makes reference to another letter – “I do not know what I said in an early letter that led you to think I might have something important to say about the commencement address on June 2, 1970” – and then goes on to give a critique (as per Schwalm’s request)– he closes by saying – In as far as I could have, I would have written about the same kind of speech as you did.  If I had been giving a Commencement address at Columbia I would have said things similar to your speech.  At Manchester I would have added the value or religion as a motivating force to persuade men to live up to their convictions.  In a great University such as Columbia, Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Wm. And Mary, it would have perhaps been considered out of place and I have no negative suggestions for your speech.  I am glad for your urging me to write about it.  I may not have given you what you wanted.  A great cosmopolitan University in a great city has all races and religions represented, and one does not win their friendship and support by insulting them, of course. Schwalm adds a P.S. – There is nothing that can give one a greater sense of responsibility than being President of a college or university and to realize that he is the one who is most directly responsible for what happens there.

Schwalm mentions the death of the student from York [see #46].

48.   20 July 1970 – Cordier to Schwalm – regarding Schwalm’s comments on Cordier’s Commencement address.  He elaborates upon Schwalm’s critique.  E.g. With respect to criticism of traditional values expressed by members of the younger generation, my concern is that they have not yet found new traditions, sanctions, and values to replace those which some are attempting to destroy.  I think, on the other hand, that there is an honest search for new values among the majority of young people today, and I think we must be very heartened by this aspect of the younger generation’s approach to life.  You make an excellent point when you say if some of us can regard favorable the attitudes and values of those younger, we will have made a promising beginning toward fruitful partnership among all ages.  This is what you have always done and surely what I have always tried to do. Cordier continues by mentioning the newspaper clippings [#49] and comments upon them.  He closes with friendly discourse.


49.   Photocopied articles from various newspapers that involve University and College Presidents and the problems of higher education– some with mention of - or quotes from - Cordier.

50.   24 July 1970 – Cordier to Schwalm referring to the Keeney accident at Manchester College [#46, #47]. He continues by updating Schwalm about phis projects at Columbia.

51.   13 August 1970 – Cordier to Schwalm thanking him for writing a reaction to Cordier’s Commencement address. There is no one whose critical acclaim means more to me than yours. He continues by telling Schwalm of his projects and goals at Columbia University.

52.   Booklet – Columbia University, A New Home for The School of International Affairs and Regional Institutes.


Cordier File F - Miscellaneous

1.  Oak Leaves article 31 May 1924 with detailed account of Andrew Cordier's wedding to Miss Dorothy Butterbaugh.

2.  15 May 1967 letter from Vernon Schwalm to Reverend Leo Malania presentinga brief biography of Andrew Cordier's life. Malania was to write Cordier's life story.

3.  4 November 1967 draft of Schwalm letter to Malania who was collecting material for Cordier's story.

27. October 1967 - letter from Leo malania to Vernon Schwalm regarding interviews about Cordier.

28. Photocopy of newspaper article about a Channel Wing Plane. "Among the observers was Dr. Andrew W. Cordier, president of Columbia University, who is a diretor of the Custer Channel Winge Corporation, whicih hopes to build and sell commercial versions as STOL (short take-off and landing) airliners serving airports the size of a football field in downtown areas."

29.  Address of Ray E. Wagner - with note to possibly send Cordier material? [See #21 Cordier file E]

30.  11 July 1966 - letter to Schwalm from Ray Wagner, thanking Schwalm for the Cordier information. [See #21 Cordier file E]

31.  Brochure - "The Role of the United Nations Association."


Date of Accession11 October 2013
Bio History Note

Decades of corresondence between Vernon Schwalm and Andrew Cordier. Cordier gives detailed accounts of behind-the-scenes activity at the United Nations during the Cold War, and the reader can watch the situation in the Congo unfold. Cordier's role in the Cuban missile Crisis is described to Schwalm as are events on the Columbia University campus during a period of student uprising in the 1960's. Cordier is always in the thick of things and his descriptions of political figures and events are intriguing.


Several notes by Professor Emeritus, David Waas, written during the summer of 2013 are included.


Archivist Note

Schwalm's folders came to the Archives in 2006 when President Jo Young Switzer was moving into her office and discovered "the President's Attic." Multiple boxes of materials came to the Archives from the "attic." Kay Batdorf, administrative assistant for President Helman, remembers that some materials came to Helman's office, and that Helman kept them private.Perhaps this was because they were marked, "Confidential?" 

Description prepared 11 October 2013 by Jeanine M. Wine.


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